|Ancient region of Anatolia|
Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from
Ionian cities were identified by mythic traditions of kinship and by their use of the
Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres (90 mi) in length from north to south, with the cities located on a narrow band between the sea and the mountains, which varies in width from 60 to 90 kilometres (40 to 60 mi). So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. The location of the eastern border with Lydia and Caria was vague in antiquity.
The region comprised three extremely fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the
Two east-west mountain ranges divide the region and extend out into the Aegean as peninsulas. The first begins as Mount Sipylus between the Hermus and Caÿster river valleys and continues out as the Erythrae peninsula, which faces the island of Chios. The second is the Messogis range between the Caÿster and Maeander ranges, which becomes the Mycale peninsula, which reaches out towards the island of Samos. None of these mountain ranges exceed 1,200 metres (3,940 ft).
Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile region of Asia Minor. Herodotus declares "in terms of climate and weather, there is no fairer region in the whole world."
From the 18th century BC the region was a part of the
Greek settlement of Ionia seems to have accelerated following the
The ancient Greeks believed that the Ionians were the descendants of
According to Pausanias, the sons of Codrus were as follows:
- Cyaretus took Myus from the Carians.
- Damasichthon and Promethus found the descendants of Thersander of Thebes at Colophon and settled alongside them, but later Promethus killed his brother and fled to Naxos.
- Andraemon conquered Lebedus from the Carians.
- Damasus and Naoclus settled at Teos, along with Boeotians led by Geres. The city had already been settled by Ionians under Apoecus (whose name literally means "founder") and Minyans who settled under Athamas.
Pausanias reports that other cities were founded or became Ionian later:
- Priene was founded by Neileus' son Aegyptus, along with Philotas, as a joint Ionian and Theban settlement.
- Clazomenae was founded by a group of Ionians, who received Parphorus, a descendant of Codrus from Colophon as their founder.
- Procles son of Pityreus of Epidaurus, a descendant of Ion, who had been expelled by Argos conquered Samos. Under his son Leogorus, the Ephesians under Androclus conquered the island and the Samians fled to Samothrace and to Anaea, but then reconquered Samos.
- Panionion from the Ionians (Pausanias expresses uncertainty about how this made them Ionian).
- Smyrna had been conquered by the Aeolians, but was later conquered by the Colophonians.
In the Archaic period, "the Ionian poleis were among the cultural, intellectual, and political leaders of the Greek world."
The twelve Ionian cities formed a religious and cultural (as opposed to a political or military) confederacy, the
But the Ionian League was primarily a religious organisation rather than a political one. Although they did sometimes act together, civic interests and priorities always trumped broader Ionian ones.
The cities became prosperous.
In the eighth century Ionian Greeks are recorded in Near Eastern sources as coastal raiders: an inscription of Sargon II (ca 709–07, recording a naval expedition of 715) boasts "in the midst of the sea" he had "caught the Ionians like fish and brought peace to the land of Que Cilicia and the city of Tyre". For a full generation earlier, Assyrian inscriptions had recorded troubles with the Ionians, who escaped on their boats.
About 700 BC Gyges, first Mermnad king of Lydia, invaded the territories of Smyrna and Miletus, and is said to have taken Colophon. His son Ardys conquered Priene. In the middle of the 7th century, the Cimmerii ravaged a great part of Asia Minor, including Lydia, and sacked Magnesia on the Maeander, but were defeated when they attacked Ephesus. It was not until the reign of Croesus (560–545 BC) that the cities of Ionia fell completely under Lydian rule.
First Achaemenid rule
The defeat of Croesus by Cyrus the Great was followed by the conquest of all the Ionian cities in 547 BC. These became subject to the Persian monarchy with the other Greek cities of Asia, forming part of the satrapy of Lydia. In this position they enjoyed a considerable amount of autonomy, but were subject to local despots (called "tyrants"), who were loyal to the Persian king.
Art and archaeology show that Ionia was characterised by "openness and adaptability" towards the Lydians, Persians, and their eastern neighbours in this period. Lydian products and luxury objects were widespread.
The Persians used "Yaunā" (Ionian) as a catch-all term for all Greeks, dividing them into "Yaunā of the mainland" in Asia Minor, "Yaunā dwelling by the sea" in the Aegean islands, "Yaunā dwelling across the sea" in the Greek mainland, and "Yaunā with shields on their heads" in Macedonia.
It was at the instigation of one of the tyrants,
The victories of the Greeks during the
The Athenians advanced an expansive definition of Ionian identity, which included most of the communities under their control and emphasised common descent from Athens. This was probably intended to legitimise their rule over the region. It clashed with the restrictive definition of Ionian identity that was maintained by the Ionian League.
Herodotus, who came from
Satrapy (387–335 BC)
The Spartans dissolved the Athenian Empire at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. The Spartans installed harmosts (governors) in the cities, but had to withdraw them because they had promised Ionia and the other Greek communities in Asia to the Persians. In 401, the Ionian cities and Sparta supported Cyrus the Younger, the Persian overlord of Asia Minor, in his attempt to seize the throne from his brother, King Artaxerxes II but he failed. Artaxerxes tasked Tissaphernes, the satrap of Lydia and Caria, with retaking the Ionian cities, and the Spartans opposed him.
In 396 BC,
The region was under Persian control by about 390 BC, when the Persian satrap arbitrated a boundary dispute between Miletus and Myus. Sparta, Athens, and the other mainland Greek states formally acknowledged Persian possession of Ionia and the other Greek cities in Asia Minor in the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC. In this period, Ionia was a separate satrapy, rather than part of Lydia - the only time in the region's history that formed an administrative unit. Ionian cities appear to have retained a considerable amount of autonomy until the conquest of Asia Minor by Alexander the Great in 335 BC.
Ephesus was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC in preparation for the invasion of Persia, which took place under his son Alexander the Great. After the battle of the Granicus in 334 BC most of the Ionian cities submitted to Alexander, except for Miletus, which was taken only after a long siege. Alexander presented his invasion as a liberation of the Greeks of Asia and therefore treated the Ionians generously, granting them freedom, autonomy, and tax-free status.
Following their victory in the
One of the major theatrical associations of the Hellenistic period was the Synod of the Dionysiac Artists of Ionia and the Hellespont, which was established around 250 BC and had its headquarters successively in Teos, Ephesus,
Ionia became part of the
Decreased political agency for the Greek cities under Rome, led to increased focus on cultural identity as a source of civic prestige. In the fierce rivalries that raged between the cities of the Province of Asia in the Roman Imperial period, Ionian cities emphasised their Ionian identity as "one of the purest, 'primordial' forms of Greekness,"
Medieval and modern history
Greeks continued to live in Ionia through the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires but were forced to vacate the region in 1922 with the population exchange between Turkey and Greece. The suburbs of Nea Ionia and Nea Smyrni were primarily settled by refugees from Ionia and still maintain an Ionian identity.
From the 7th century BC, Ionia, and in particular
Ionia has a long roll of distinguished men of letters and science (notably the
Ionia appears as the major setting in these novels:
- The Ionia Sanction (2011), by Gary Corby
- The Ionian Mission (1981), by Patrick O'Brian
- Ancient regions of Anatolia
- Regions of ancient Greece
- List of traditional Greek place names
- Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
- ^ Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία [i.ɔː.ní.aː], Iōnía or Ἰωνίη, Iōníē; Turkish: İyonya
- ^ Herodotus, 1.142.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j public domain: Bunbury, Edward Herbert; Hogarth, David George (1911). "Ionia". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 727–728. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- ^ Herodotus, 1.143, 1.149–150.
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 20.
- ^ Herodotus 1.142
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 25.
- ^ Pausanias 7.1
- ^ Herodotus, 1.145.
- ^ MacSweeney 2013, pp. 157–73. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMacSweeney2013 (help)
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 3, 12.
- ^ Pausanias 7.1
- ^ Pausanias 7.2
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 31.
- ^ Pausanias 7.2.8-9
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 30.
- ^ Pausanias 7.2.10-11
- ^ Pausanias 7.3.3
- ^ Pausanias 7.3.5
- ^ Pausanias 7.3.6
- ^ Pausanias 7.3.7
- ^ Pausanias 7.2.10-11
- ^ Pausanias 7.3.8
- ^ Pausanias 7.3.10
- ^ Pausanias 7.4.1-3
- ^ Pausanias 7.4.8-10
- ^ Pausanias 7.5.1
- ^ a b c d Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 17.
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 18.
- ^ a b Sargon's inscription in A. Fuchs, Die Inschriften Sargons II aus Khorsabad (1994:40) noted in Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:29f.
- ISBN 9781136787997. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 18-19.
- ^ Herodotus, 1.146.
- ^ Herodotus, 1.147.
- ^ Hamilton, Sparta's Bitter Victories, p. 27.
- ^ Hamilton, Agesilaus, p. 87.
- ^ Hamilton, Sparta's Bitter Victories, pp. 104–107.
- ^ Hamilton, Agesilaus, p. 88.
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 26-27.
- ISBN 9780199766628.
- ISBN 9781134524747.
- ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 5.1.31
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 27.
- ^ Ma 1999.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 37.
- ^ Mark Cartwright. "Celsus Library". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- OCLC 230191195.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 39.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 28-30.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 30-32.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 38.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 14-17.
- ^ a b Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 13.
- ^ Hallmannsecker 2022, p. 1-2.
- OCLC 1322366046.
- ISBN 978-0-47209-507-0.
The name "Yunan" comes from Ionia; cf. Old Persian "Yauna" (...)
- Jan Paul Crielaard, "The Ionians in the Archaic period: Shifting identities in a changing world," in Ton Derks, Nico Roymans (ed.), Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition (Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2009) (Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, 13), 37–84.
- Gorman, Vanessa B. (2001). Miletos, the ornament of Ionia : a history of the city to 400 B.C.E. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472037773.
- Greaves, Alan M. (2010). The land of Ionia : society and economy in the Archaic period. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444319224.
- Hallmannsecker, Martin (2022). Roman Ionia : constructions of cultural identity in western Asia Minor. Cambridge, United Kingdom: CUP. ISBN 9781009150194.
- Herrmann, P. (2002). "Das Koinon ton Ionon unter römischer Herrschaft". In Ehrhardt, N.; Günther, L.-M. (eds.). Widerstand, Anpassung, Integration : die griechische Staatenwelt und Rom : Festschrift für Jürgen Deininger zum 65. Geburtstag. Stuttgart: Steiner. pp. 223–242. ISBN 9783515079112.
- Ma, John (1999). Antiochos III and the cities of Western Asia Minor. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198152191.
- ISBN 9781107037496.
- Mac Sweeney, Naoíse (2021). "Regional Identities in the Greek World: Myth and Koinon in Ionia". Historia. 70 (3): 268.
- Mariaud, Olivier (2020). "Ionia". In Lemos, Irene S.; Kotsonas, Antonios (eds.). A companion to the archaeology of early Greece and the Mediterranean. Hoboken, NJ. pp. 961–984. ISBN 9781118770191.
- Thonemann, Peter (2015). The Maeander Valley : a historical geography from antiquity to Byzantium (First paperback ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107538139.