- Беларуская (тарашкевіца)
- Bahasa Indonesia
- Lingua Franca Nova
- Bahasa Melayu
- 閩東語 / Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄
- Norsk bokmål
- Norsk nynorsk
- Oʻzbekcha / ўзбекча
- Саха тыла
- Simple English
- Српски / srpski
- Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
- Татарча / tatarça
- Tiếng Việt
|Part of a series on|
Central to physiological functioning are
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for exceptional scientific achievements in physiology related to the field of medicine.
Physiology is the branch of biology that focuses on the study of the functions and mechanisms of living organisms, from the molecular and cellular level to the level of whole organisms and populations. The foundations of physiology lie in several key areas, including anatomy, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, and evolution.
Anatomy is the study of the structure and organization of living organisms, from the microscopic level of cells and tissues to the macroscopic level of organs and systems. An understanding of anatomy is essential for understanding the physiological functions of organisms, as the structure of an organism often dictates its function.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. It provides the foundation for understanding the metabolic processes that are essential for life, such as the conversion of food into energy and the synthesis of molecules necessary for cellular function.
Biophysics is the study of the physical properties of living organisms and their interactions with the environment. It helps to explain how organisms sense and respond to different stimuli, such as light, sound, and temperature, and how they maintain homeostasis, or a stable internal environment.
Genetics is the study of heredity and the variation of traits within and between populations. It provides insights into the genetic basis of physiological processes and the ways in which genes interact with the environment to influence an organism's phenotype.
Evolutionary biology is the study of the processes that have led to the diversity of life on Earth. It helps to explain the origin and adaptive significance of physiological processes and the ways in which organisms have evolved to cope with their environment.
Together, these foundational areas provide the basis for understanding the functions and mechanisms of living organisms at all levels of organization, from the molecular to the ecological.
Although there are differences between animal, plant, and microbial cells, the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, and cell metabolism.
Human physiology is the study of how the human body's systems and functions work together to maintain a stable internal environment. It includes the study of the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems, as well as cellular and exercise physiology. Understanding human physiology is essential for diagnosing and treating health conditions and promoting overall wellbeing.
It seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.
Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be the effects of certain medications or toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is often used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
The classical era
The study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates (late 5th century BC). Outside of Western tradition, early forms of physiology or anatomy can be reconstructed as having been present at around the same time in China, India and elsewhere. Hippocrates incorporated the theory of humorism, which consisted of four basic substances: earth, water, air and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humor: black bile, phlegm, blood, and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates also noted some emotional connections to the four humors, on which Galen would later expand. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which also consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold, wet and dry. Galen (c. 130–200 AD) was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body. His modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen also played off of Hippocrates' idea that emotions were also tied to the humors, and added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood; phlegmatic is tied to phlegm; yellow bile is connected to choleric; and black bile corresponds with melancholy. Galen also saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations; the heart and arteries, which give life; and the liver and veins, which can be attributed to nutrition and growth. Galen was also the founder of experimental physiology. And for the next 1,400 years, Galenic physiology was a powerful and influential tool in medicine.
Early modern period
In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man." Inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the "body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory ... where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems (called by him as appareils).
In 1891, Ivan Pavlov performed research on "conditional responses" that involved dogs' saliva production in response to a bell and visual stimuli.
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the
Nineteenth-century physiologists such as
Late modern period
In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of
In 1920, August Krogh won the Nobel Prize for discovering how, in capillaries, blood flow is regulated.
In 1954, Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley, alongside their research team, discovered the sliding filaments in skeletal muscle, known today as the sliding filament theory.
Recently, there have been intense debates about the vitality of physiology as a discipline (Is it dead or alive?). If physiology is perhaps less visible nowadays than during the golden age of the 19th century, it is in large part because the field has given birth to some of the most active domains of today's biological sciences, such as neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology. Furthermore, physiology is still often seen as an integrative discipline, which can put together into a coherent framework data coming from various different domains.
Women in physiology
Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The
Soon thereafter, in 1913,
Prominent women physiologists include:
- Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, the first woman president of the American Physiological Society in 1975.
- Carl Cori, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for their discovery of the phosphate-containing form of glucose known as glycogen, as well as its function within eukaryotic metabolic mechanisms for energy production. Moreover, they discovered the Cori cycle, also known as the Lactic acid cycle, which describes how muscle tissue converts glycogen into lactic acid via lactic acid fermentation.
- genetic transposition. McClintock is the only female recipient who has won an unshared Nobel Prize.
- viral herpes.
- Linda B. Buck, along with Richard Axel, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for their discovery of odorant receptors and the complex organization of the olfactory system.
- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS).
- telomeres and the enzyme called telomerase.
There are many ways to categorize the subdisciplines of physiology:
- based on the human physiology, animal physiology, plant physiology, microbial physiology, viral physiology
- based on the ecological physiology, integrative physiology
- based on the process that causes physiological variation: environmental physiology, evolutionary physiology
- based on the ultimate goals of the research: non-applied (e.g., comparative physiology)
Transnational physiological societies include:
- American Physiological Society
- International Union of Physiological Sciences
- The Physiological Society
National physiological societies include:
- ^ Harper, Douglas. "physiology". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^ "What is physiology?". biology.cam.ac.uk. University of Cambridge, Faculty of Biology. 16 February 2016. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
- ISBN 978-0-471-85767-9.
- ^ ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8.
- ISBN 978-1-259-29409-9.
- ^ "Plant physiology". Basic Biology. 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- PMID 24619342.
- ^ "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. WHO. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- ^ "Eszopiclone" (PDF). F.A. Davis. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 24, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- ^ "Zolpidem" (PDF). F.A. Davis. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- PMID 24252155.
Together with physiology and biochemistry, anatomy is one of the basic sciences that are to be taught in the medical curriculum.
- PMID 8010752. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- ^ "Physiology". Science Clarified. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ Helaine Selin, Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2003), p. 53.
- ^ Burma, D. P.; Chakravorty, Maharani. From Physiology and Chemistry to Biochemistry. Pearson Education. p. 8.
- ^ "Early Medicine and Physiology". ship.edu.
- ^ a b c "Galen of Pergamum". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- PMID 18271159.
- S2CID 3304540.
- ^ "Santorio Santorio (1561-1636): Medicina statica". Vaulted Treasures. University of Virginia, Claude Moore Health Sciences Library.
- ^ ISBN 978-0-295-80578-8.
- ^ a b c d "Milestones in Physiology (1822-2013)" (PDF). 1 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-20. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
- ^ "The Society's history | Physiological Society". physoc.org. Archived from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- ^ "American Physiological Society > About". the-aps.org. Archived from the original on 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- ^ "Introduction to physiology: History, biological systems, and branches". www.medicalnewstoday.com. 2017-10-13. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
- ^ Bernard, Claude (1865). An Introduction to the Study of Ex- perimental Medicine. New York: Dover Publications (published 1957).
- ^ Bernard, Claude (1878). Lectures on the Phenomena of Life Common to Animals and Plants. Springfield: Thomas (published 1974).
- PMC 1447286.
- ISBN 978-0-19-974376-6.
- ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3.
- PMID 8010752. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2021-04-12. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- ^ PMID 29873600.
- ISBN 9781139056007.
- S2CID 22271159.
- S2CID 6756983.
- ^ "American Physiological Society > Founders". the-aps.org. The American Physiological Society. Archived from the original on 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- PMID 7043502. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-22. Retrieved 2017-04-27.
- ^ Butin, Jan (31 December 1999). "Ida Henrietta Hyde". Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Jewish Women's Archive.
- ^ "Women in Physiology | Physiological Society". physoc.org. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- ^ "Women in Physiology". physoc.org. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2015-05-15.
- ^ "Bodil M. Schmidt-Nielsen Distinguished Mentor and Scientist Award". www.pathwaystoscience.org. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
- ^ "Carl Cori and Gerty Cori". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Cori cycle". TheFreeDictionary.com.
- ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- ^ "Gertrude B. Elion". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". nobelprize.org.
- ^ "Francoise Barre-Sinoussi - biography - French virologist". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Elizabeth H. Blackburn". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Carol W. Greider | Biography, Nobel Prize, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2023-02-08.
- ^ Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
- Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8.
- Widmaier, E.P., Raff, H., Strang, K.T. Vander's Human Physiology. 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2009.
- Marieb, E.N. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th Edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2012.
- Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., Anderson, M. Animal Physiology, 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 2012.
- Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
- Randall, D., Burggren, W., and French, K. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanism and Adaptation, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, 2002.
- Schmidt-Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Withers, P.C. Comparative animal physiology. Saunders College Publishing, New York, 1992.
- Larcher, W. Physiological plant ecology (4th ed.). Springer, 2001.
- Salisbury, F.B, Ross, C.W. Plant physiology. Brooks/Cole Pub Co., 1992
- Taiz, L., Zieger, E. Plant Physiology (5th ed.), Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer, 2010.
- Griffin, D.H. Fungal Physiology, Second Edition. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1994.
- Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/AP, 2012.
- Levandowski, M., Hutner, S.H. (eds). Biochemistry and physiology of protozoa. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1979; 2nd ed.
- Laybourn-Parry J. A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa. Berkeley, California: University of California Press; 1984.
- Lobban, C.S., Harrison, P.J. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Stewart, W. D. P. (ed.). Algal Physiology and Biochemistry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1974.
- El-Sharoud, W. (ed.). Bacterial Physiology: A Molecular Approach. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008.
- Kim, B.H., Gadd, M.G. Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism. Cambridge, 2008.
- Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W., Spector, M.P. Microbial Physiology, 4th ed. Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York, NY, 2002.
- Media related to Physiologyat Wikimedia Commons
- physiologyINFO.org public information site sponsored by The American Physiological Society