Coordinates: 57°N 4°W / 57°N 4°W / 57; -4
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Scotland (
Scottish Gaelic
Ethnic groups
  • 51.1% no religion
  • 2.2% Islam
  • 0.6% Hinduism
  • 0.3% Buddhism
  • 0.2% Sikhism
  • 0.1% Judaism
  • 0.6% other
  • 6.2% not stated
59 MPs
(of 650)
LegislatureScottish Parliament
9th century (traditionally 843)
17 March 1328
3 October 1357[2]
1 May 1707
19 November 1998
• Total[a]
80,231 km2 (30,977 sq mi)[3]
• Land[b]
77,901 km2 (30,078 sq mi)[3]
• 2022 census
Neutral increase 5,439,842
• Density
70/km2 (181.3/sq mi)[4]
GVA2022 estimate
 • Total£165.7 billion
 • Per capita£30,419[5]

Scotland (

islands, principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. To the south-east, Scotland has its only land border, which is 96 miles (154 km) long and shared with England; the country is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the north-east and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. The population in 2022 was 5,439,842 and accounts for 8% of the population of the UK.[9] Edinburgh is the capital and Glasgow is the largest of the cities of Scotland


revitalisation attempts have led to a growing community of second language speakers.[16]

The mainland of Scotland is broadly divided into three regions: the Highlands, a mountainous region in the north and north-west; the Lowlands, a flatter plain across the centre of the country; and the Southern Uplands, a hilly region along the southern border. The Highlands are the most mountainous region of the British Isles and contain its highest peak, Ben Nevis, at 4,413 feet (1,345 m).[9] The region also contains many lakes, called lochs; the term is also applied to the many saltwater inlets along the country's deeply indented western coastline. The geography of the many islands is varied. Some, such as Mull and Skye, are noted for their mountainous terrain, while the likes of Tiree and Coll are much flatter.


Scotland comes from

Late Middle Ages.[10]



Prehistoric Scotland, before the arrival of the Roman Empire, was culturally divergent.[22]

Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of

Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BC.[26]
: 38 

Early history

Skara Brae, Europe's most complete Neolithic village, occupied from roughly 3180 BC – 2500 BC
Callanish Stones, erected in the late Neolithic era

The first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands.[24]: 10 

Most of modern Scotland was not incorporated into the Roman Empire, and Roman control over parts of the area fluctuated over a rather short period. The first Roman incursion into Scotland was in 79 AD, when Agricola invaded Scotland; he defeated a Caledonian army at the Battle of Mons Graupius in 83 AD.[24]: 12  After the Roman victory, Roman forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands.[27] Remains of Roman forts established in the 1st century have been found as far north as the Moray Firth.[28] By the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan (r. 98–117), Roman control had lapsed to Britain south of a line between the River Tyne and the Solway Firth.[29] Along this line, Trajan's successor Hadrian (r. 117–138) erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England[24]: 12  and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire.[30][31] The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, and they introduced Christianity to Scotland.[24]: 13–14 [26]: 38 


glens in the Highlands, the Caledonians were again in revolt in 210–211 and these were overrun.[28]

To the Roman historians

Latin: saltus) which the 2nd century AD Roman philosopher Ptolemy, in his Geography, described as being south-west of the Beauly Firth.[28] The name Caledonia is echoed in the place names of Dunkeld, Rohallion, and Schiehallion.[28]


comes Theodosius; but Roman military government was withdrawn from the island altogether by the early 5th century, resulting in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the immigration of the Saxons to southeastern Scotland and the rest of eastern Great Britain.[29]

Kingdom of Scotland

Political divisions in early medieval Scotland
Norse kingdoms at the end of the eleventh century

Beginning in the sixth century, the area that is now Scotland was divided into three areas:

Kingdom of Northumbria, which had conquered southeastern Scotland;[24]: 18–20  and Dál Riata, which included territory in western Scotland and northern Ireland, and spread Gaelic language and culture into Scotland.[33] These societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves (mostly captured in war) through the ninth century.[24]
: 26–27 

Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of

Norse settlements were in northwest Scotland, but they eventually conquered many areas along the coast. Old Norse entirely displaced Pictish in the Northern Isles.[34]

In the ninth century, the Norse threat allowed a Gael named

Kenneth I (Cináed mac Ailpín) to seize power over Pictland, establishing a royal dynasty to which the modern monarchs trace their lineage, and marking the beginning of the end of Pictish culture.[24]: 31–32 [35] The kingdom of Cináed and his descendants, called Alba, was Gaelic in character but existed on the same area as Pictland. By the end of the tenth century, the Pictish language went extinct as its speakers shifted to Gaelic.[24]: 32–33  From a base in eastern Scotland north of the River Forth and south of the River Spey, the kingdom expanded first southwards, into the former Northumbrian lands, and northwards into Moray.[24]: 34–35  Around the turn of the millennium, there was a centralization in agricultural lands and the first towns began to be established.[24]
: 36–37 

James V of Scotland at the Court of Session in 1532, at Parliament House, Edinburgh, the Parliament of Scotland until 1707

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, much of Scotland was under the control of a single ruler. Initially, Gaelic culture predominated, but immigrants from France, England and Flanders steadily created a more diverse society, with the Gaelic language starting to be replaced by Scots; and a modern nation-state emerged from this. At the end of this period, war against England started the growth of a

Gaelic culture and the Scottish clan system. After the conflict, Scotland had to affirm Norwegian sovereignty of the Northern Isles, but they were later integrated into Scotland in the 15th century. Scandinavian culture in the form of the Norn language survived for a lot longer than in the Hebrides, and would strongly influence the local Scots dialect on Shetland and Orkney.[39] Later, a system of feudalism was consolidated, with both Anglo-Norman incomers and native Gaelic chieftains being granted land in exchange for serving the king.[36]: 53–54  The relationship with England was complex during this period: Scottish kings tried several times, sometimes with success, to exploit English political turmoil, followed by the longest period of peace between Scotland and England in the mediaeval period: from 1217–1296.[36]
: 45-46 

Wars of Scottish Independence

The Flag of Scotland flies over the Monument for the Battle of Bannockburn

The death of Alexander III in March 1286 broke the succession line of Scotland's kings. Edward I of England arbitrated between various claimants for the Scottish crown. In return for surrendering Scotland's nominal independence, John Balliol was pronounced king in 1292.[36]: 47 [40] In 1294, Balliol and other Scottish lords refused Edward's demands to serve in his army against the French. Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295, known as the Auld Alliance. War ensued, and John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray and William Wallace initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in the Wars of Scottish Independence,[41] until Robert the Bruce was crowned king of Scotland in 1306.[42] Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom. In 1320 the world's first documented declaration of independence, the Declaration of Arbroath, won the support of Pope John XXII, leading to the legal recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown. [43]: 70, 72 

A civil war between the

House of Stewart.[43]: 77  The Stewarts ruled Scotland for the remainder of the Middle Ages. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation,[44]: 93  despite the effects of the Black Death in 1349[43]: 76  and increasing division between Highlands and Lowlands.[43]: 78  Multiple truces reduced warfare on the southern border.[43]
: 76, 83 

Union of the Crowns

King of Scotland
, succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.

The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed in 1502 by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England. James married Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor.[45] James invaded England in support of France under the terms of the Auld Alliance and became the last monarch in Great Britain to die in battle, at Flodden in 1513.[46] The war with England during the minority years of Mary, Queen of Scots between 1543 and 1551 is known as the Rough Wooing.[47] In 1560, the Treaty of Edinburgh brought an end to the Siege of Leith and recognized the Protestant Elizabeth I as Queen of England.[44]: 112  The Parliament of Scotland met and immediately adopted the Scots Confession, which signalled the Scottish Reformation's sharp break from papal authority and Roman Catholic teaching.[26]: 44  The Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate in 1567.[48]

In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland in the Union of the Crowns, and moved to London.[49] This was a personal union as despite having the same monarch the kingdoms retained their separate parliaments, laws and other institutions. The first Union Jack was designed at James's behest, to be flown in addition to the St Andrew's Cross on Scots vessels at sea. James VI and I intended to create a single kingdom of Great Britain, but was thwarted in his attempt to do so by the Parliament of England, which supported the wrecking proposal that a full legal union be sought instead, a proposal to which the Scots Parliament would not assent, causing the king to withdraw the plan.[50]

Except for a short period under

church government.[51]: 124  The military was strengthened, allowing the imposition of royal authority on the western Highland clans. The 1609 Statutes of Iona compelled the cultural integration of Hebridean clan leaders.[52]: 37–40  In 1641 and again in 1643, the Parliament of Scotland unsuccessfully sought a union with England which was "federative" and not "incorporating", in which Scotland would retain a separate parliament.[53] The issue of union split the parliament in 1648.[53]

After the execution of the Scottish king at

House of Orange and the succeeding House of Hanover until the defeat of the Jacobite rising of 1745.[53] In 1698, the Company of Scotland attempted a project to secure a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama. Almost every Scottish landowner who had money to spare is said to have invested in the Darien scheme.[54][55]

Treaty of Union

Scottish Exemplification (official copy) of the Treaty of Union of 1707

After another proposal from the English House of Lords was rejected in 1695, and a further Lords motion was voted down in the House of Commons in 1700, the Parliament of Scotland again rejected union in 1702.[53] The failure of the Darien Scheme bankrupted the landowners who had invested, though not the burghs. Nevertheless, the nobles' bankruptcy, along with the threat of an English invasion, played a leading role in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England.[54][55] On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England. The following year, twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707[56] with popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.[57][58] The union also created the Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England, which rejected proposals from the Parliament of Ireland that the third kingdom be incorporated in the union.[53]

With trade tariffs with England abolished, trade blossomed, especially with

American War of Independence in 1776, Glasgow was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade.[59]
The disparity between the wealth of the merchant classes of the Scottish Lowlands and the ancient clans of the Scottish Highlands grew, amplifying centuries of division.

The deposed

Episcopalian Protestants. Two major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain's last pitched battle

In the Highlands, clan chiefs gradually started to think of themselves more as commercial landlords than leaders of their people. These social and economic changes included the first phase of the Highland Clearances and, ultimately, the demise of clanship.[60]: 32–53, passim

Industrial age and the Scottish Enlightenment

Waverley Novels
helped define Scottish identity in the 19th century

The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution turned Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse[61] — so much so Voltaire said "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation."[62] With the demise of Jacobitism and the advent of the Union, thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, took up numerous positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent British Empire. Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland." Davidson also states "far from being 'peripheral' to the British economy, Scotland – or more precisely, the Lowlands – lay at its core."[63]


Second City of the Empire" after London.[69] After 1860, the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after 1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre.[70] The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis.[71]

While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,

Japonism, which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe and helped define the Art Nouveau style. Proponents included architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh.[77]

World wars and Scotland Act 1998

A piper of the Seaforth Highlanders leads the 26th Brigade back from the trenches during the Battle of Bazentin Ridge, July 1916
A defused 1,000 kg Luftmine (German parachute mine) in Glasgow, 18 March 1941, during the Clydebank Blitz

Scotland played a major role in the

Irish Catholic working-class districts. Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. The "Reds" operated within the Labour Party with little influence in Parliament and the mood changed to passive despair by the late 1920s.[80]

During the Second World War, Scotland was targeted by Nazi Germany largely due to its factories, shipyards, and coal mines.[81] Cities such as Glasgow and Edinburgh were targeted by German bombers, as were smaller towns mostly located in the central belt of the country.[81] Perhaps the most significant air raid in Scotland was the Clydebank Blitz of March 1941, which intended to destroy naval shipbuilding in the area.[82] 528 people were killed and 4,000 homes totally destroyed.[82] Perhaps Scotland's most unusual wartime episode occurred in 1941 when Rudolf Hess flew to Renfrewshire, possibly intending to broker a peace deal through the Duke of Hamilton.[83] Before his departure from Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch, a letter addressed to Adolf Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace negotiations with the British. Pintsch delivered the letter to Hitler at the Berghof around noon on 11 May.[84] Albert Speer later said Hitler described Hess's departure as one of the worst personal blows of his life, as he considered it a personal betrayal.[85] Hitler worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British.

After 1945, Scotland's economic situation worsened due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes.

electronics manufacturing, (see Silicon Glen),[87] and the North Sea oil and gas industry.[88] The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one year before the rest of Great Britain,[89] contributed to a growing movement for Scottish control over domestic affairs.[90]

Following a

first minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden death in 2000.[94]

21st century

Queen Elizabeth II


additional member system
) resulted in no one party having an overall majority for the first three Scottish parliament elections.

The pro-

September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence. The majority voted against the proposition, with 55% voting no to independence.[97] More powers, particularly concerning taxation, were devolved to the Scottish Parliament after the referendum, following cross-party talks in the Smith Commission

Since the 2014 referendum, events such as the UK leaving the European Union, despite a majority of voters in Scotland voting to remain a member, have led to calls for a second independence referendum. In 2022, the Lord Advocate Dorothy Bain argued the case for the Scottish Government to hold another referendum on the issue, with the Supreme Court later ruling against the argument.[98] Following the Supreme Court decision, the Scottish Government stated that it wished to make amendments to the Scotland Act 1998 that would allow a referendum to be held in 2023.[99]

Geography and natural history

Tràigh Allt Chàilgeag, Scottish Highlands

The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the northwest coast of Continental Europe. The total area is 30,977 square miles (80,231 km2) with a land area of 30,078 square miles (77,901 km2),[3] comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 miles (154 km) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 13 miles (21 km) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre;[100] Norway is 190 miles (305 km) to the northeast and the Faroe Islands, 168 miles (270 km) to the north.

The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237

crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472;[102] and Berwick-upon-Tweed
, lost to England in 1482

The geographical

centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch.[103] Rising to 4,413 feet (1,345 m) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 117 miles (188 km).[9]

Geology and geomorphology

Arthur's Seat, Edinburgh
Wanlockhead in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland's highest village above sea level

The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the

ice ages
and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions: the Highlands and Islands, the Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands.


Cuillins.[104] In north-eastern mainland Scotland weathering of rock that occurred before the Last Ice Age has shaped much of the landscape.[105]

A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of

, a low-lying dune pasture land.


industrial revolution are found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells
are rarely far from view.


Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft).[10][109][110][111] The Southern Uplands is home to Scotland's highest village, Wanlockhead (430 m or 1,411 ft above sea level).[108]


Tiree in the Inner Hebrides is one of the sunniest locations in Scotland.

The climate of most of Scotland is

Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. Temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895, the coldest ever recorded anywhere in the UK.[112] Winter maxima average 6 °C (43 °F) in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C (64 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) at Floors Castle, Scottish Borders on 19 July 2022.[113]

The west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic

ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975.[114] Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in).[115] In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than 800 mm (31 in) annually.[116] Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year,[117] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.[116]

Flora and fauna

White-tailed sea eagle

Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets.[118] The golden eagle is something of a national icon.[119]

On the high mountain tops, species including

beaver and wild boar. Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland. On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll, these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.[127][128]

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both

indigenous plants and animals.[129] The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne, Argyll in the 1870s, and the Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe.[130][131][132] Although the number of native vascular plants is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is of global importance.[133][134]



Scotland population cartogram. The size of councils is in proportion to their population.

During the 1820s, many Scots migrated from Scotland to countries such as Australia, the United States and Canada, principally from the Highlands which remained poor in comparison to elsewhere in Scotland.[135] The Highlands was the only part of mainland Britain with a recurrent famine.[136] A small range of products were exported from the region, which had negligible industrial production and a continued population growth that tested the subsistence agriculture. These problems, and the desire to improve agriculture and profits were the driving forces of the ongoing Highland Clearances, in which many of the population of the Highlands suffered eviction as lands were enclosed, principally so that they could be used for sheep farming. The first phase of the clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain. The second phase was driven by overpopulation, the Highland Potato Famine and the collapse of industries that had relied on the wartime economy of the Napoleonic Wars.[137]

The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901.[138] Even with the development of industry, there were not enough good jobs. As a result, during the period 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England.[139] Caused by the advent of refrigeration and imports of lamb, mutton and wool from overseas, the 1870s brought with them a collapse of sheep prices and an abrupt halt in the previous sheep farming boom.[140]

In August 2012, the Scottish population reached an all-time high of 5.25 million people.[141] The reasons given were that, in Scotland, births were outnumbering the number of deaths, and immigrants were moving to Scotland from overseas. In 2011, 43,700 people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland.[141] The most recent census in Scotland was conducted by the Scottish Government and the National Records of Scotland in March 2022.[142] The population of Scotland at the 2022 Census was 5,436,600, the highest ever,[142] beating the previous record of 5,295,400 at the 2011 Census. It was 5,062,011 at the 2001 Census.[143] An ONS estimate for mid-2021 was 5,480,000.[144] In the 2011 Census, 62% of Scotland's population stated their national identity as 'Scottish only', 18% as 'Scottish and British', 8% as 'British only', and 4% chose 'other identity only'.[145]

Throughout its history, Scotland has long had a tradition of migration from Scotland and immigration into Scotland. In 2021, the Scottish Government released figures showing that an estimated 41,000 people had immigrated from other international countries into Scotland, while an average of 22,100 people had migrated from Scotland.[146] Scottish Government data from 2002 shows that by 2021, there had been a sharp increase in immigration to Scotland, with 2002 estimates standing at 27,800 immigrants. While immigration had increased from 2002, migration from Scotland had dropped, with 2002 estimates standing at 26,200 people migrating from Scotland.[147]


Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which has just over 584,000 inhabitants. The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population.[148] The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities of Scotland are located, including Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen. The Scottish Lowlands host 80% of the total population, where the Central Belt accounts for 3.5 million people.

In general, only the more accessible and larger islands remain inhabited. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern Uplands is essentially rural and dominated by agriculture and forestry.[149][150] Because of housing problems in Glasgow and Edinburgh, five new towns were designated between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld, Livingston, and Irvine.[151]

The largest council area by population is Glasgow City, with Highland being the largest in terms of geographical area.

Largest cities or towns in Scotland
Council area
Municipal pop. Rank
Council area
Municipal pop.
1 Glasgow Glasgow City 632,350 11 Kirkcaldy Fife 50,370 Aberdeen
2 Edinburgh City of Edinburgh 506,520 12 Inverness Highland 47,790
3 Aberdeen Aberdeen 198,590 13 Perth Perth and Kinross 47,350
4 Dundee Dundee City 148,210 14 Kilmarnock East Ayrshire 46,970
5 Paisley Renfrewshire 77,270 15 Ayr South Ayrshire 46,260
6 East Kilbride South Lanarkshire 75,310 16 Coatbridge North Lanarkshire 43,950
7 Livingston West Lothian 56,840 17 Greenock Inverclyde 41,280
8 Dunfermline Fife 54,990 18 Glenrothes Fife 38,360
9 Hamilton South Lanarkshire 54,480 19 Stirling Stirling 37,910
10 Cumbernauld North Lanarkshire 50,530 20 Airdrie North Lanarkshire 36,390


South Ayrshire boundary sign, displaying English and Scottish Gaelic

Scotland has three

Western Isles
, where it continues to be used by a large proportion of residents.

Overall, the use of Scotland's indigenous languages other than English has declined since the 19th century. The 2011 census indicated that 63% of the population had "no skills in Scots".[158] The use of Gaelic is confined to 1% of the population.[159] The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 in 1881 to 60,000 in 2008.[160] Across the whole of Scotland, the 2011 census showed that 25,000 people (0.49% of the population) used Gaelic at home. The most common language spoken at home in Scotland after English and Scots is Polish, with about 1.1% of the population, or 54,000 people.[161][162]

Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee small South Asian communities.[163] In 2011, there were an estimated 49,000 ethnically Pakistani people living in Scotland, making them the largest non-White ethnic group.[164] The 2004 enlargement of the European Union spurred an increase in migration from Central and Eastern Europe to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that 61,000 Poles lived there.[164][165]

There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some degree of

Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4.7 million people.[170] About 20% of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland.[171]


High Kirk of Edinburgh

As per the 2022 Census, a majority of Scots (51.12%) reported not following any religion. The most practiced religion is Christianity (38.79%), mostly the Church of Scotland (20.36 %) and Roman Catholicism (13.3%).[172] In almost every council area, a majority reported not belonging to a religion except in Na h-Eileanan Siar and Inverclyde, where the Church of Scotland (35.3%) and Catholicism (33.4%) were the most common responses, respectively.[172]

Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now Scotland for more than 1,400 years.[173][174] Since the

Presbyterian system of church government independent from the state.[10] Its membership dropped just below 300,000 in 2020 (5% of the total population)[175][176][177]
The Church operates a territorial parish structure, with every community in Scotland having a local congregation.

Scotland also has a significant

Roman Catholic population with 13.3% professing that faith, particularly in Greater Glasgow and the north-west.[178][172] After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism in Scotland continued in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist and Barra, and it was strengthened during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland, and various other Presbyterian offshoots. Scotland's third largest church is the Scottish Episcopal Church.[179]

Other minority faiths include

Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, is the oldest Buddhist monastery in Western Europe.[182]


University of St. Andrews is the oldest in Scotland and one of the oldest worldwide[183]


First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible.[186] In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school.[187] By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas.[188] Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education (Scotland) Act 1872.[189]

Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the

There are fifteen

Scottish universities, some of which are among the oldest in the world.[193][194] The four universities founded before the end of the 16th century – the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh – are collectively known as the ancient universities of Scotland, all of which rank among the 200 best universities in the world in the THE rankings, with Edinburgh placing in the top 50.[195] Scotland had more universities per capita in QS' World University Rankings' top 100 in 2012 than any other nation.[196] The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports.[197][198]
Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees.


NHS Scotland's Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow. It is the largest hospital campus in Europe.[199]

Health care in Scotland is mainly provided by

Health Directorates. In 2014, the NHS in Scotland had around 140,000 staff.[201]

The total fertility rate (TFR) in Scotland is below the replacement rate of 2.1 (the TFR was 1.73 in 2011[202]). The majority of births are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2012[203]).

Life expectancy for those born in Scotland between 2012 and 2014 is 77.1 years for males and 81.1 years for females.[204] This is the lowest of any of the four countries of the UK.[204] The number of hospital admissions in Scotland for diseases such as cancer was 2,528 in 2002. Over the next ten years, by 2012, this had increased to 2,669.[205] Hospital admissions for other diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD) were lower, with 727 admissions in 2002, and decreasing to 489 in 2012.[205]

Government and politics

The Scottish Parliament Building in Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Parliament and its committees

Scotland is part of the United Kingdom, a

royal coat of arms, and the title Duke of Rothesay, which is traditionally given to the heir apparent. There are also distinct Scottish Officers of State and Officers of the Crown, and the Order of the Thistle, a chivalric order, is specific to the country.[207]


Scotland Office represents the British government in Scotland and represents Scottish interests within the government.[212] The Scotland Office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.[213] The Conservative MP Alister Jack has held the position since July 2019.[213]

The Scottish Parliament is a

additional member system. MSPs normally serve for a five-year period.[214] The largest party since the 2021 Scottish Parliament election, has been the Scottish National Party (SNP), which won 64 of the 129 seats.[215] The Scottish Conservatives, Scottish Labour, the Scottish Liberal Democrats and the Scottish Greens also have representation in the current Parliament.[215] The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held on 7 May 2026.[216] The Scottish Government is led by the First Minister, who is nominated by MSPs and is typically the leader of the largest party in the Parliament. Other ministers are appointed by the first minister and serve at their discretion.[217] Since 8 May 2024 the first minister has been John Swinney
, the leader of the SNP.

Diplomacy and relations

Colored dice with white background
First Minister Henry McLeish meets with U.S. President George W. Bush at the White House, 2001

Within the UK, the First Minister is a member of the

Minister for International Development and Europe all have portfolios which include foreign affairs.[222][223]

Scotland's international network consists of two Scotland Houses, one in Brussels and the other in London, seven Scottish Government international offices, and over thirty Scottish Development International offices in other countries globally. Both Scotland Houses are independent Scottish Government establishments, whilst the seven Scottish Government international offices are based in British embassies or British High Commission offices.[224] The Scottish Government, along with the other devolved governments of the United Kingdom, pay the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office an annual charge to be able to access facilities and support in the Embassy or High Commission in which the Scottish international offices are based. The Scottish Government's international network allows Scottish Government ministers to engage with other international governments and bodies in relation to the government's policy objectives as well as that of Scottish businesses. Additionally, the international network of the Scottish Government acts as a mechanism to promote and strengthen the Scottish economy by creating opportunities for Scottish businesses to increase export sales of Scottish products, whilst working with their current, and any future, foreign investors to establish and maintain Scottish jobs in the goods sector.[224]

Scotland is a member of the

Scandinavian countries.[233][234] Scottish Government policy advocates for stronger political relations with the Nordic and Baltic countries, which has resulted in some Nordic-inspired policies being adopted such as baby boxes.[235][236] Representatives from the Scottish Parliament attended the Nordic Council for the first time in 2022.[237]

Devolution and independence

referendum in 1997 which found majority support for both creating the Parliament and granting it limited powers to vary income tax.[240] The Act enabled the new institutions to legislate in all areas not explicitly reserved by the UK Parliament.[241]

Two more pieces of legislation, the Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016, gave the Scottish Parliament further powers to legislate on taxation and social security;[242] the 2016 Act also gave the Scottish Government powers to manage the affairs of the Crown Estate in Scotland.[243] Conversely, the United Kingdom Internal Market Act 2020 constrains the Scottish Parliament's autonomy to regulate goods and services,[244][245] and the academic view is that this undermines devolution.[251]


commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies while not considering independence.[252] In August 2009 the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010, but was defeated by opposition from all other major parties.[253][254][255]

The 2011 Scottish Parliament election resulted in an SNP overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, and on 18 September 2014 a referendum on Scottish independence was held.[256] The referendum resulted in a rejection of independence, by 55.3% to 44.7%.[257][258] During the campaign, the three main parties in the British Parliament–the Conservatives, Labour, and the Liberal Democrats–pledged to extend the powers of the Scottish Parliament.[259][260] An all-party commission chaired by Robert Smith, Baron Smith of Kelvin was formed,[260] which led to the Scotland Act 2016.[261]

Following the European Union Referendum Act 2015, the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum was held on 23 June 2016 on Britain's membership of the European Union. A majority in the United Kingdom voted to withdraw from the EU, while a majority within Scotland voted to remain a member.[262] The first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced the following day that as a result a new independence referendum was "highly likely".[263][262] On 31 January 2020, the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the European Union. Because constitutional affairs are reserved matters under the Scotland Act, the Scottish Parliament would again have to be granted temporary additional powers under Section 30 to hold a legally binding vote.[264][265][266]

Local government

Glasgow City Chambers, seat of Glasgow City Council

For local government purposes Scotland is subdivided into 32 single-tier council areas.[267] The areas were established in 1996, and their councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services. Decisions are made by councillors, who are elected at local elections every five years. The leader of the council is typically a councillor from the party with the most seats; councils also have a civic head, typically called the provost or lord provost, who represents the council on ceremonial occasions and chairs council meetings.[268] Community Councils are informal organisations that represent smaller subdivisions within each council area.[269]

Police Scotland and the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service cover the entire country. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.

There are eight cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Dunfermline, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Stirling and Perth.[270] City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by the monarch through letters patent.[271]


A Challenger 2 main battle tank of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards

As one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the British Armed Forces are the armed forces of Scotland. Of the money spent on UK defence, about £3.3 billion can be attributed to Scotland as of 2018/2019.[272] Scotland had a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union with England. Following the Treaty of Union in 1707, the Scots Army and Royal Scots Navy merged with their English counterparts to form the Royal Navy and the British Army, which together form part of the British Armed Forces.[273][274] The Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only remaining legal private army, did not join the Scots Army or Royal Scots Navy in merging with English armed forces, remaining a private army not under the command of the British Armed Forces.[275]


HM Naval Base Clyde

Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments.

nuclear deterrent


Trident-armed submarine occurred in 1994, although the US base was closed at the end of the Cold War.[283]

A single front-line

Poseidon MRA1 squadrons, and a full–time, permanently based RAF Regiment squadron.[284]

Law and order

Parliament House, Edinburgh, the former Parliament of Scotland, houses the Supreme Courts of Scotland

Scots law has a basis derived from

Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.[287]
Scots law provides for three types of
Justice of the Peace Courts
from 2008 to 2010.

For three centuries the Scots legal system was unique for being the only national legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, which legislates for devolved matters.[289] Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven".[290] Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal, typically with no possibility of retrial per the rule of double jeopardy. A retrial can hear new evidence at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.[291]

Police Scotland van with bilingual writing.


prosecutions on indictment are conducted by the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service in the Lord Advocate's name on behalf of the Monarch.[292] The officeholder is one of the Great Officers of State of Scotland. The current Lord Advocate is Dorothy Bain, who was nominated by First Minister Nicola Sturgeon and appointed in June 2021.[293] The Lord Advocate is supported by the Solicitor General for Scotland.[294]

Since 2013, Scotland has had a unified police force known as Police Scotland. The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners.[295] The Cabinet Secretary for Justice and Home Affairs is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government.


Edinburgh, the 13th-largest financial centre in the world and 4th largest in Europe in 2020[296]
Global headquarters of Rockstar North; developers of best–selling game franchise Grand Theft Auto, is part of "Silicon Glen"

Scotland has a Western-style

service-oriented economy. The Scottish National Investment Bank was established by the Scottish Government in 2020, which uses public money to fund commercial projects across Scotland with the hope that this seed capital will encourage further private investment, to help develop a fairer, more sustainable economy. £2 billion of taxpayers money was earmarked for the bank.[302]

In 2022, Scotland's gross domestic product (GDP), including offshore oil and gas, was estimated at £211.7 billion.[6] In 2021, Scottish exports in goods and services (excluding intra-UK trade) were estimated to be £50.1 billion.[303] Scotland's primary goods exports are mineral fuels, machinery and transport, and beverages and tobacco.[304] The country's largest export markets in goods are the European Union, Asia and Oceania, and North America.[304] Whisky is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity. Exports increased by 87% in the decade to 2012[305] and were valued at £4.3 billion in 2013, which was 85% of Scotland's food and drink exports.[306] It supports around 10,000 jobs directly and 25,000 indirectly.[307] It may contribute £400–682 million to Scotland, rather than several billion pounds, as more than 80% of whisky produced is owned by non-Scottish companies.[308] A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment.[309]

Scotland was one of the industrial powerhouses of Europe from the time of the Industrial Revolution onwards, being a world leader in manufacturing.[310] This left a legacy in the diversity of goods and services which Scotland produces, from textiles, whisky and shortbread to jet engines, buses, computer software, investment management and other related financial services.[311] In common with most other advanced industrialised economies, Scotland has seen a decline in the importance of both manufacturing industries and primary-based extractive industries. This has been combined with a rise in the service sector of the economy, which has grown to be the largest sector in Scotland.[312]

Income and poverty

The Bank of Scotland is one of the oldest banks in the world

The average weekly income for workplace-based employees in Scotland is £573,

local authority for pay by where people live is East Renfrewshire (£20.87 per hour).[314]

The top local authority for pay based on where people work is

local authority dwellings.[315] Typical prices for a house in Scotland was £195,391 in August 2022.[316]

Between 2016 and 2020, the Scottish Government estimated that 10% of people in Scotland were in persistent poverty following housing costs, with similar rates of persistent poverty for children (10%), working-age adults (10%) and pensioners (11%).[317] Persistent child poverty rates had seen a relatively sharp drop, however, the accuracy of this was deemed to be questionable due to a number of various factors such as households re-entering the longitudinal sample allowing data gaps to be filled.[317] The Scottish Government introduced the Scottish Child Payment in 2021 for low-income families with children under six years of age in an attempt to reduce child poverty rates, with families receiving a payment of roughly £1,040 per year.[318] As of October 2023, 10% of the Scottish population were estimated to be living in poverty.[319]


Example of a Royal Bank of Scotland banknote

Although the

retail banks in Scotland is subject to the Banking Act 2009, which repealed all earlier legislation under which banknote issuance was regulated, and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Banknote Regulations 2009.[320]

The value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation in 2013 was £3.8 billion, underwritten by the Bank of England using funds deposited by each clearing bank, under the Banking Act 2009, to cover the total value of such notes in circulation.[321]

Infrastructure and transportation

Barra Airport, the only airport in the world to use a tidal beach as the runway
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Scotland has

Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations, although Inverness Airport has a number of scheduled flights to destinations across the UK and mainland Europe.[323] Edinburgh Airport is currently Scotland's busiest airport handling over 13 million passengers in 2017.[324] It is also the UK's 6th busiest airport. The airline Loganair has its headquarters at Glasgow Airport and markets itself as Scotland's Airline.[325]

Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.[326] Scotland's rail network has 359 railway stations and around 1,710 miles (2,760 km) of track.[327] In 2018–19 there were 102 million passenger journeys on Scottish railways.[328] On 1 January 2006, Transport Scotland was established, which would oversee the regulation of railways in Scotland and administer major rail projects.[329] Since April 2022, Transport Scotland has taken ScotRail back into public ownership via its operator of last resort, Scottish Rail Holdings.[330] It did the same with the Caledonian Sleeper service in June 2023.[331]

The Glasgow Subway is the only underground system in Scotland. It opened on 14 December 1896, making it the third-oldest underground network in the world after the Budapest Metro and the London Underground. It is owned and operated by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.[332]

The Scottish motorways and major

Scottish local authorities
in each of their areas.

Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne.[333][334] Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, such as southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland, are served by multiple companies.[335] DFDS Seaways operated a freight-only Rosyth – Zeebrugge ferry service, until a fire damaged the vessel DFDS were using.[336] A passenger service was also operated between 2002 and 2010.[337]

Science, technology and energy

A donkey
Sir Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of the world's first broadly effective antibiotic substance – penicillin
A trout
Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the first working television system on 26 January 1926.[338]

Scotland's primary sources of energy are provided through renewable energy (61.8%), nuclear (25.7%) and fossil fuel generation (10.9%).[339] Whitelee Wind Farm is the largest onshore wind farm in the United Kingdom, and was Europe's largest onshore wind farm for some time.[340] Tidal power is an emerging source of energy in Scotland. The MeyGen tidal stream energy plant in the north of the country is claimed to be the largest tidal stream energy project in the world.[341] In Scotland, 98.6% of all electricity used was from renewable sources. This is minus net exports.[339] Between October 2021 and September 2022 63.1% of all electricity generated in Scotland was from renewable sources, 83.6% was classed as low carbon and 14.5% was from fossil fuels.[342] The Scottish Government has a target to have the equivalent of 50% of the energy for Scotland's heat, transport and electricity consumption to be supplied from renewable sources by 2030.[343] They have stated that, in 2022, the equivalent of 113% of the country's overall electrical consumption was produced by renewable energy, making it the highest recorded figure of renewable energy generated to date.[344]

flushing toilets and the steam engine – are said to have been possible by Scotland's universities and parish schools, together with the commitment Scots had to education during the Scottish Enlightenment.[345] Alexander Fleming is responsible for the discovery of the world's first broadly effective antibiotic substance, which he named penicillin, earning him a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945.[346][347][348] Modern Scottish inventions – the Falkirk Wheel and the Glasgow Tower – hold world records for being the only rotating boat lift and the tallest fully rotating freestanding structure in the world respectively.[349][350]


aerospace company Orbex expected to be launched from Sutherland.[356]

Culture and society

Scottish music

The Bagpipes are an instrument largely associated with Scotland, and an early example of popular Scottish music

Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe, a woodwind reed instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. The popularity of pipe bands—primarily featuring bagpipes, various types of snares and drums, and showcasing Scottish traditional dress and music—has spread throughout the world. Bagpipes are featured in holiday celebrations, parades, funerals, weddings, and other events internationally. Many military regiments have a pipe band of their own. In addition to the Great Highland pipes, several smaller, somewhat quieter bellows-blown varieties of bagpipe are played in Scotland, including the smallpipes and the Border pipes

Scottish popular music has gained an international following, with artists such as Lewis Capaldi, Amy Macdonald, KT Tunstall, Nina Nesbitt, Chvrches, Gerry Cinnamon and Paolo Nutini gaining international success. DJ Calvin Harris was one of the most streamed artists on Spotify in 2023,[357][358] whilst Susan Boyle's debut album was one of the best-selling albums of the 21st century, and was the best-selling album internationally in 2009.[359] Musical talent in Scotland is recognised via the Scottish Music Awards, Scottish Album of the Year Award, the Scots Trad Music Awards and the BBC Radio Scotland Young Traditional Musician award.

Literature and media

World renowned poet Robert Burns is considered the national poet, best known for works such as "Auld Lang Syne" and writing in the Scots language

Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in

Waverley Novels did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th century.[371] Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in English, including Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald.[372]

In the 20th century the

National newspapers such as the

The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north.[378] Scotland is represented at the Celtic Media Festival, which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980.[379]

Scotland's national broadcaster is

ITV regions of Scotland.[380]

Celtic connections

As one of the Celtic nations, Scotland and Scottish culture are represented at inter-Celtic events at home and over the world. Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance.[381][382][383][384]

National identity

spear thistle, the national emblem
of Scotland

The image of

Lion Rampant flag.[389][390][391] Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans.[392]

Although there is no official

Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day an official bank holiday.[396] Tartan Day is a recent innovation from Canada.[397]

The national animal of Scotland is the unicorn, which has been a Scottish heraldic symbol since the 12th century.[398] The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates Scottish heraldry and the Public Register of All Armorial Bearings in Scotland.[399]


Haggis, neeps and tatties

Scottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider

game, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive.[400]

early modern era, French cuisine played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the "Auld Alliance",[402] especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.[403]


Scotland's national football team's fans are commonly known as The Tartan Army
The Old Course at St Andrews, the oldest golf course in the world

Scotland hosts its own national sporting competitions and has independent representation at several international sporting events, including the

Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby League World Cup, the Cricket World Cup, the Netball World Cup and the Commonwealth Games. Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world)[404] and the Scottish Rugby Union. Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to 1424.[405]

The world's first official international association football match, between

governing body for Scottish association football, and a founding member of the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which governs the Laws of the Game. Scotland is one of only four countries to have a permanent representative on the IFAB; the other four representatives being appointed for set periods by FIFA.[408][409] The SFA has responsibility for the Scotland national football team and the Scotland women's team

With the modern game of

Royal Troon

The Scottish Rugby Union is the second oldest rugby union in the world. Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh is the national stadium of the Scottish national rugby team. The Scotland rugby team played their first official test match, winning 1–0 against England at Raeburn Place in 1871. Scotland has competed in the Six Nations from the inaugural tournament in 1883, winning it 14 times outright—including the last Five Nations in 1999—and sharing it another 8. The Rugby World Cup was introduced in 1987 and Scotland have competed in all nine competitions, the most recent being in the 2023 Rugby World Cup. Scotland competes with the England rugby team annually for the Calcutta Cup. Each year, this fixture is played out as part of the Six Nations, with Scotland having last won in 2024.[417]

Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the

Paul Di Resta, and Jackie Stewart.[418] In IndyCar, Dario Franchitti has won 4 consecutive IndyCar world championships.[419]

Scotland has competed at every Commonwealth Games since 1930 and has won 356 medals in total—91 Gold, 104 Silver and 161 Bronze.[420] Edinburgh played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and most recently Glasgow in 2014.[421]

See also


  1. ^ ONS Standard Area Measurement, 'total extent of the realm'
  2. ^ ONS Standard Area Measurement, 'area to mean high water excluding inland water'
  3. ^ Scottish Government figures include oil and gas revenues generated beyond UK territorial waters in the country's continental shelf region
  4. GeoTLD, open to use by all with a connection to Scotland or Scottish culture. .uk as part of the United Kingdom is also used. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb
    is unused.


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  243. . Since the act became law on 17 December 2020, the devolved administrations can continue to set standards for goods and services produced within their territory, but their rules do not apply to goods and services coming from other jurisdictions. They also must accept products imported into one part of the UK. This undermines their legislative autonomy and renders certain policies ineffective
  244. . The UK Internal Market Act gives ministers sweeping powers to enforce mutual recognition and non-discrimination across the four jurisdictions. Existing differences and some social and health matters are exempted but these are much less extensive than the exemptions permitted under the EU Internal Market provisions. Only after an amendment in the House of Lords, the Bill was amended to provide a weak and non-binding consent mechanism for amendments (equivalent to the Sewel Convention) to the list of exemptions. The result is that, while the devolved governments retain regulatory competences, these are undermined by the fact that goods and services originating in, or imported into, England can be marketed anywhere.
  245. . While the mutual recognition principle preserves devolved powers, rather than requiring that devolved nations conform with a wide range of harmonised standards (as they did in the EU), the Act undermines devolution simply because devolved legislation will no longer apply to all relevant activity in the devolved territory...Devolution is also undermined by the asymmetry of legislative authority...the UK Internal Market Act is a protected enactment, which devolved administrations are unable to appeal or modify, but which the UK parliament will be able to modify when legislating for England.
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  247. . So when used to disapply relevant requirements in a destination devolved jurisdiction the effect is different from that generated by the devolution statutes when they treat rules that are outside of competence as being 'not law'. In this way, the legislative competence of each jurisdiction is formally maintained, but its exercise constrained by the extraterritorial reach of regulatory norms applicable elsewhere in the UK and by the potential for regulatory competition where local producers are subject to local rules but competing goods can enter that market in compliance with the regulatory standards from where they originate...the UKIM Act 2020 allows extraterritorial application of rules that reflect different preferences or even undermines local preferences through regulatory competition, its effects are not insignificant for devolved legislatures.
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Further reading

External links

57°N 4°W / 57°N 4°W / 57; -4