Location within Europe
|Coordinates: 50°05′15″N 14°25′17″E / 50.08750°N 14.42139°E|
100 00 – 199 00
|ISO 3166 code||CZ-10|
|Vehicle registration||A, AA – AZ|
|Gross regional product (nominal)||2021|
|– Total||€65.4 billion|
|– Per capita||€50,500|
|HDI (2021)||0.960 – very high · 1st|
Prague is a political, cultural, and economic hub of central Europe, with a rich history and Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architectures. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably Charles IV (r. 1346–1378).
It was an important city to the
Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe. Main attractions include
The city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theaters, galleries, cinemas, and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city. It is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an "Alpha-"
Etymology and names
The Czech name Praha is derived from an old
Another view to the origin of the name is also related to the Czech word práh (with the meaning of a
Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na prazě, the original term for the
The English spelling of the city's name is borrowed from French. In the 19th and early 20th centuries it was pronounced in English to rhyme with "vague": it was so pronounced by Lady Diana Cooper (born 1892) on Desert Island Discs in 1969, and it is written to rhyme with "vague" in a verse of The Beleaguered City by Longfellow (1839) and also in the limerick There was an Old Lady of Prague by Edward Lear (1846).
Prague is also called the "City of a Hundred Spires", based on a count by 19th century mathematician Bernard Bolzano; today's count is estimated by the Prague Information Service at 500. Nicknames for Prague have also included: the Golden City, the Mother of Cities and the Heart of Europe.
During the thousand years of its existence, Prague grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, to become the capital of a modern European country.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya.
Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celtic tribe appeared in the area, later establishing settlements, including the largest Celtic oppidum in Bohemia, Závist, in a present-day south suburb Zbraslav in Prague, and naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes (Marcomanni, Quadi, Lombards and possibly the Suebi), leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis.
In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and, probably in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes (Venedi) settled the Central Bohemian Region. In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley, Butovice and Levý Hradec.
The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, expanding a fortified settlement that had existed on the site since the year 800. The first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years later than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but was not completed until the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th-century Czech duchess and prophetess
The region became the seat of the
Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from across Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the
At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King
In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana ("Lesser Quarter") was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany (Prague Castle) area. This was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights. The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město ("Old Town"), which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications.
Late Middle Ages
Prague flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Bohemia of the new Luxembourg dynasty. As King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague into an imperial capital. In the 1470s, Prague had around 70,000 inhabitants and with an area of 360 ha (~1.4 square miles) it was the third-largest city in the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles IV ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the Old Town and laid out the design himself. The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the east bank districts to the Malá Strana and castle area. In 1347, he founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in Central Europe.
He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque rotunda there. Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the year the cathedral was begun.
The city had a
The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá Strana and the castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families.
Charles IV died in 1378. During the reign of his son, King
In 1400, Prague had 95,000 inhabitants, making it the third largest city in Europe (after
Four years later Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague priest Jan Želivský. Hus' death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Peasant rebels, led by the general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated Emperor Sigismund, in the Battle of Vítkov Hill in 1420.
During the Hussite Wars when Prague was attacked by "Crusader" and mercenary forces, the city militia fought bravely under the Prague Banner. This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 ft (1.2 by 1.8 m), with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the center. The words "PÁN BŮH POMOC NAŠE" (The Lord is our Relief/Help) appeared above the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite chalice centered on the top. Near the swallow-tails is a crescent-shaped golden sun with rays protruding.
One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops during the
In the following two centuries, Prague strengthened its role as a merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings were erected and Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle was added.
In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg. The fervent Catholicism of its members brought them into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were gaining popularity. These problems were not preeminent under Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia in 1576, who chose Prague as his home. He lived in the Prague Castle, where his court welcomed not only astrologers and magicians but also scientists, musicians, and artists. Rudolf was an art lover as well, and Prague became the capital of European culture. This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poet Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others.
In 1618, the famous
In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713–14, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague one last time, killing 12,000 to 13,000 people.
In 1744, Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Bohemia. He took Prague after a severe and prolonged siege in the course of which a large part of the town was destroyed. Empress Maria Theresa expelled the Jews from Prague in 1745; though she rescinded the expulsion in 1748, the proportion of Jewish residents in the city never recovered. In 1757 the Prussian bombardment destroyed more than one quarter of the city and heavily damaged St. Vitus Cathedral. However a month later, Frederick the Great was defeated and forced to retreat from Bohemia.
The economy of Prague continued to improve during the 18th century. The population increased to 80,000 inhabitants by 1771. Many rich merchants and nobles enhanced the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a Baroque city renowned throughout the world to this day.
In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana, Nové Město, Staré Město, and Hradčany were merged into a single entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. The Industrial Revolution produced great changes and developments in Prague, as new factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby regions. A first suburb, Karlín, was created in 1817, and twenty years later the population exceeded 100,000.
The revolutions in Europe in 1848 also touched Prague, but they were fiercely suppressed. In the following years, the Czech National Revival began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague had a German-speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall population caused by the influx of Czechs from the rest of Bohemia and Moravia and the increasing prestige and importance of the Czech language as part of the Czech National Revival.
First Czechoslovak Republic
World War I ended with the defeat of the
Second World War
In February 1945,
On 5 May 1945, two days before Germany capitulated, an
Prague was a city in a country under the military, economic, and political control of the
After the Velvet Revolution
In 1989, after riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the
Prague is situated on the Vltava river. The Berounka flows into the Vltava in the suburbs of Lahovice. There are 99 watercourses in Prague with a total length of 340 km (210 mi). The longest streams are Rokytka and Botič.
There are 3 reservoirs, 37 ponds, and 34 retention reservoirs and dry polders in the city. The largest pond is Velký Počernický with 41.76 ha (103.2 acres). The largest body of water is Hostivař Reservoir with 42 hectares (103.8 acres).
In terms of geomorphological division, most of Prague is located in the Prague Plateau. In the south the city's territory extends into the Hořovice Uplands, in the north it extends into the Central Elbe Table lowland. The highest point is the top of the hill Teleček on the western border of Prague, at 399 m (1,309 ft) above sea level. Notable hills in the centre of Prague are Petřín with 327 m (1,073 ft) and Vítkov with 270 m (890 ft). The lowest point is the Vltava in Suchdol at the place where it leaves the city, at 172 m (564 ft).
Prague is located approximately at 50°5′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E. Prague is approximately at the same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany; Paris, France; and Vancouver, Canada. The northernmost point is at 50°10′39″N 14°31′37″E / 50.17750°N 14.52694°E, the southernmost point is at 49°56′31″N 14°23′44″E / 49.94194°N 14.39556°E, the westernmost point is at 50°6′14″N 14°13′31″E / 50.10389°N 14.22528°E, and the easternmost point is at 50°5′14″N 14°42′23″E / 50.08722°N 14.70639°E.
Prague has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with humid continental (Dfb) influences, defined as such by the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm. The winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and with very little sunshine. Snow cover can be common between mid-November and late March although snow accumulations of more than 200 mm (8 in) are infrequent. There are also a few periods of mild temperatures in winter. Summers usually bring plenty of sunshine and the average high temperature of 24 °C (75 °F). Nights can be quite cool even in summer, though. Precipitation in Prague is rather low (just over 500 mm or 20 in per year) since it is located in the rain shadow of the Sudetes and other mountain ranges. The driest season is usually winter while late spring and summer can bring quite heavy rain, especially in form of thundershowers. Temperature inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March bringing foggy, cold days and sometimes moderate air pollution. Prague is also a windy city with common sustained western winds and an average wind speed of 16 km/h (10 mph) that often help break temperature inversions and clear the air in cold months.
|Climate data for Prague (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1775-present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.4
|Average high °C (°F)||2.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−27.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34
|Average snowfall mm (inches)||179
|Average precipitation days||5.7||5.2||6.6||5.8||8.5||9.4||8.9||8.4||7.3||5.5||7.1||5.9||84.3|
|Average dew point °C (°F)||−4.6
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||50.0||72.4||124.7||167.6||214.0||218.3||226.2||212.3||161.0||120.8||53.9||46.7||1,667.9|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||1||3||4||6||7||6||6||4||2||1||1||4|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1981–2010)|
|Climate data for Prague (1991−2020 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||2.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||25.8
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||53.1||82.9||128.1||192.5||220.4||230.0||240.0||227.6||163.5||109.9||48.9||43.3||1,740.2|
Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic and as such is the regular seat of its central authorities. Since 24 November 1990, it is de facto again a statutory city, but has a specific status of the municipality and the region at the same time. Prague also houses the administrative institutions of the Central Bohemian Region.
Until 1949, all administrative districts of Prague were formed by the whole one or more cadastral unit, municipality or town. Since 1949, there has been a fundamental change in the administrative division. Since then, the boundaries of many urban districts, administrative districts and city districts are independent of the boundaries of cadastral territories and some cadastral territories are thus divided into administrative and self-governing parts of the city. Cadastral area (for example, Vinohrady and Smíchov) are still relevant especially for the registration of land and real estate and house numbering.
Prague is divided into 10 municipal districts (1–10), 22 administrative districts (1–22), 57 municipal parts, and 112 cadastral areas.
Prague is autonomously administered by the Prague City Assembly, which is elected through municipal elections and consists of 65 members. Executive body of Prague, elected by the Assembly is a Prague City Council. The municipal office of Prague is called Prague City Hall. It has 11 members including the mayor and it prepares proposals for the Assembly meetings and ensures that adopted resolutions are fulfilled. The Mayor of Prague is Civic Democratic Party member Bohuslav Svoboda.
Even though the official population of Prague hovers around 1.3 million as of the 2011 census, the city's real population is much higher due to only 65% of its residents being marked as permanently living in the city. Data taken from mobile phone movements around the city suggest that the real population of Prague is closer to 1.9 or 2.0 million, with an additional 300,000 to 400,000 commuters coming to the city on weekdays for work, education, or commerce.
About 14% of the city’s inhabitants were born outside the Czech Republic, the highest proportion in the country. However, 64.8% of the city's population self-identified as ethnically Czech, which is slightly higher than the national average of 63.7%. Almost 29% of respondents declined to answer the question on ethnicity at all, so it may be assumed that the real percentage of ethnic Czechs in Prague is considerably higher. The largest ethnic minority are Slovaks, followed by Ukrainians and Russians.
Prague's population is the oldest and best-educated in the country. It has the lowest proportion of children. Only 10.8% of census respondents claimed adherence to a religion; the majority of these were
Development of the Prague population since 1378 (since 1869 according to the censuses within the limits of present-day Prague):
As of 31 March 2023, there were 325,336 foreign residents in Prague, of which 118,996 with permanent residence in Prague. The following nationalities are the most numerous:
|Foreign residents in Prague (March 2023)|
Historic Centre of Prague and Průhonice Park
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv, vi|
|Inscription||1992 (16th Session)|
|Buffer zone||9,887.09 ha|
The city is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events. Some of the significant cultural institutions include the National Theatre (Národní Divadlo) and the Estates Theatre (Stavovské or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the premières of Mozart's Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito were held. Other major cultural institutions are the Rudolfinum which is home to the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra and the Municipal House which is home to the Prague Symphony Orchestra. The Prague State Opera (Státní opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre.
The city has many world-class museums, including the National Museum (Národní muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Alfons Mucha Museum, the African-Prague Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, the Náprstek Museum (Náprstkovo Muzeum), the Josef Sudek Gallery and The Josef Sudek Studio, the National Library, the National Gallery, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic and the Kunsthalle Praha, the newest museum in the city.
There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. It hosts music festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague Autumn International Music Festival, the Prague International Organ Festival, the Dvořák Prague International Music Festival, and the Prague International Jazz Festival. Film festivals include the Febiofest, the One World Film Festival and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. The city also hosts the Prague Writers' Festival, the Prague Folklore Days, Prague Advent Choral Meeting the Summer Shakespeare Festival, the Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows.
An early the 1912 silent drama film Pro peníze was filmed mostly in Prague. Many films have been made at Barrandov Studios and at Prague Studios. Hollywood films set in Prague include Mission Impossible, xXx, Blade II, Children of Dune, Alien vs. Predator, Doom, Chronicles of Narnia, Hellboy, EuroTrip, Van Helsing, Red Tails, and Spider-Man: Far From Home. Other Czech films shot in Prague include Empties, Amadeus and The Fifth Horseman Is Fear. Also, the romantic music video "Never Tear Us Apart" by INXS, "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" by Kanye West was shot in the city, and features shots of the Charles Bridge and the Astronomical Clock, among other landmarks. Rihanna's "Don't Stop the Music" video was filmed at Prague's Radost FX Club. The city was also the setting for the film Dungeons and Dragons in 2000. The music video "Silver and Cold" by AFI, an American rock band, was also filmed in Prague. Many Indian films have also been filmed in the city including Yuvvraaj, Drona and Rockstar. Early 2000s europop hit "Something" by "Lasgo" was filmed at the central train station in Prague.
Video games set in Prague include Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness, Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, Vampire: The Masquerade – Redemption, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, Still Life, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 and Deus Ex: Mankind Divided.
With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, Prague has become a weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its museums and cultural sites as well as try its Czech beers and cuisine.
The city has many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf Loos (Villa Müller), Frank O. Gehry (Dancing House) and Jean Nouvel (Golden Angel).
Recent major events held in Prague:
- International Monetary Fund and World Bank Summit 2000
- NATO Summit 2002
- International Olympic Committee Session 2004
- IAU General Assembly 2006 (Definition of planet)
- EU & USA Summit 2009
- Czech Presidency of the Council of the European Union 2009
- USA & Russia Summit 2010 (signing of the New START treaty)
In 2008, the Allegro restaurant received the first Michelin star in the whole of the post-Communist part of Central Europe. It retained its star until 2011. As of 2018[update], there were just two Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague: La Degustation Bohême Bourgeoise and Field. Another six have been awarded Michelin's Bib Gourmand: Bistrøt 104, Divinis, Eska, Maso a Kobliha, Na Kopci and Sansho. However, as of 2022, there are 27 Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague which still include La Degustation Bohême Bourgeoise and Field.
In Malá Strana, Staré Město, Žižkov and Nusle there are hundreds of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with Czech beer. Prague also hosts the Czech Beer Festival (Český pivní festival), which is the largest beer festival in the Czech Republic held for 17 days every year in May. At the festival, more than 70 brands of Czech beer can be tasted. There are several microbrewery festivals throughout the year as well.
Czech beer has a long history, with brewing taking place in Břevnov Monastery in 993. Prague is home to historical breweries Staropramen (Praha 5), U Fleků, U Medvídků, U Tří růží, Strahov Monastery Brewery (Praha 1) and Břevnov Monastery Brewery (Praha 6). Among many microbreweries are: Novoměstský, Pražský most u Valšů, Národní, Boršov, Loď pivovar, U Dobřenských, U Dvou koček, U Supa (Praha 1), Pivovarský dům (Praha 2), Sousedský pivovar Bašta (Praha 4), Suchdolský Jeník, Libocký pivovar (Praha 6), Marina (Praha 7), U Bulovky (Praha 8), Beznoska, Kolčavka (Praha 9), Vinohradský pivovar, Zubatý pes, Malešický mikropivovar (Praha 10), Jihoměstský pivovar (Praha 11), Lužiny (Praha 13), Počernický pivovar (Praha 14) and Hostivar (Praha 15).
Prague's economy accounts for 25% of the Czech GDP making it the highest performing regional economy of the country. As of 2021, its GDP per capita in purchasing power standard is €58,216, making it the third best performing region in the EU at 203 per cent of the EU-27 average in 2021.
Prague employs almost a fifth of the entire Czech workforce, and its wages are significantly above average (≈+20%). In 4Q/2020, during the pandemic, average salaries available in Prague reached CZK 45.944 (≈€1,800) per month, an annual increase of 4%, which was nevertheless lower than national increase of 6.5% both in nominal and real terms. (Inflation in the Czech Republic was 3.2% in 4Q/2020.) Since 1990, the city's economic structure has shifted from industrial to service-oriented. Industry is present in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport equipment, computer technology, and electrical engineering. In the service sector, financial and commercial services, trade, restaurants, hospitality and public administration are the most significant. Services account for around 80 per cent of employment. There are 800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters. The number of (legally registered) foreign residents in Prague has been increasing in spite of the country's economic downturn. As of March 2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city making up about 18 per cent of the workforce, up from 131,132 in 2008. Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech Republic takes place in the city.
Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in Prague. The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost 51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses.
From the late 1990s to late 2000s, the city was a common filming location for international productions such as Hollywood and Bollywood motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to international film production companies.
The modern economy of Prague is largely service and export-based and, in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) for business.
In 2005, Prague was deemed among the three best cities in Central and Eastern Europe according to The Economist's livability rankings. The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th globally out of 289 cities, ahead of Brussels and Helsinki for innovation in 2010 in 2thinknow annual analysts Innovation Cities Index.
Na příkopě is the most expensive street among all the states of the V4. In 2017, with the amount of rent €2,640 (CZK 67,480) per square meter per year, ranked on 22nd place among the most expensive streets in the world. The second most expensive is Pařížská street.
In the Eurostat research, Prague ranked fifth among Europe's 271 regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving 172 per cent of the EU average. It ranked just above Paris and well above the country as a whole, which achieved 80 per cent of the EU average.
Companies with highest turnover in the region in 2014:
|Name||Turnover, mld. Kč|
|RWE Supply & Trading CZ||146.1|
Prague is also the site of some of the most important offices and institutions of the Czech Republic
- President of the Czech Republic
- The Government and both houses of Parliament
- Ministries and other national offices (Industrial Property Office, Czech Statistical Office, National Security Authority, etc.)
- Czech National Bank
- Czech Television and other major broadcasters
- Radio Free Europe – Radio Liberty
- Galileo global navigation project
- Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
This article needs to be updated.(November 2021)
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague has become one of the world's most popular tourist destinations. Prague suffered considerably less damage during World War II than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. It contains one of the world's most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Romanesque, to Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic, Art Nouveau, Cubist, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern.
Prague is classified as an "Alpha-"
Hradčany and Lesser Town (Malá Strana)
- Czech Crown Jewels
- The picturesque Charles Bridge (Karlův most)
- The Baroque Saint Nicholas Church
- Church of Our Lady Victorious and Infant Jesus of Prague
- Písek Gate, one of the last preserved city gate of Baroque fortification
- Petřín Hill with Petřín Lookout Tower, Mirror Maze and Petřín funicular
- Lennon Wall
- The Franz Kafka Museum
- Kampa Island, an island with a view of the Charles Bridge
- The Baroque Wallenstein Palace with its garden
Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov
- The Astronomical Clock (Orloj) on Old TownCity Hall
- The Gothic Church of Our Lady before Týn (Kostel Matky Boží před Týnem) from the 14th century with 80 m high towers
- Stone Bell House
- The vaulted Gothic Old New Synagogue (Staronová Synagoga) of 1270
- Old Jewish Cemetery
- Powder Tower (Prašná brána), a Gothic tower of the old city gates
- Spanish Synagogue with its elaborate interior decoration
- Old Town Square(Staroměstské náměstí) with gothic and baroque architectural styles
- The art nouveau Municipal House, a major civic landmark and concert hall known for its Art Nouveau architectural style and political history in the Czech Republic.
- Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, with an extensive collections including glass, furniture, textile, toys, Art Nouveau, Cubism and Art Deco
- Clam-Gallas Palace, a baroque palace from 1713
- Church of St. Martin in the Wall
- Colloredo-Mansfeld Palace, with elements of High Baroque and the later Rococo and Second-Rococo adaptations. Known today for its well-preserved dance hall
- St. Clement's Cathedral, Prague
New Town (Nové Město)
- Busy and historic Wenceslas Square
- The neo-renaissance National Museum with large scientific and historical collections at the head of Wenceslas Square. It is the largest museum in the Czech Republic, covering disciplines from the natural sciences to specialized areas of the social sciences. The staircase of the building offers a nice view of the New Town.
- The National Theatre, a neo-Renaissance building with golden roof, alongside the banks of the Vltava river
- The deconstructivist Dancing House (Fred and Ginger Building)
- Charles Square, the largest medieval square in Europe (now turned into a park)
- The Emmaus monasteryand WW I Memorial "Prague to Its Victorious Sons" at Palacky Square (Palackého náměstí)
- The museum of the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius
- Stiassny's Jubilee Synagogue is the largest in Prague
- The Mucha Museum, showcasing the Art Nouveau works of Alphonse Mucha
- Church of St. Apollinaire, Prague
- Church of Saint Michael the Archangel in Prague
- Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and St. Charles the Great, Prague
- Church of Our Lady on the Lawn
- St. Wenceslas Church (Zderaz)
- St. Stephen's Church
Vinohrady and Žižkov
- The neo-Gothic Church of St. Ludmila at Míru Square in Vinohrady
- Žižkov Television Tower
- New Jewish Cemetery in Olšany, location of Franz Kafka's grave – Prague 3
- The Roman Catholic Sacred Heart Churchat Jiřího z Poděbrad Square
- The Vinohrady grand Neo-Renaissance, Art Nouveau, Pseudo Baroque, and Neo-Gothic buildings in the area between Míru Square, Jiřího z Poděbrad Square and Havlíčkovy sady park
- Vyšehrad cemeteryand Prague oldest Rotunda of St. Martin
- The Prague Metronome at Letná Park, a giant, functional metronome that looms over the city
- TripAdvisor in 2015
- Výstaviště compound in Holešovice
- Letohrádek Hvězda (Star Villa) in Liboc, a renaissance villa in the shape of a six-pointed star surrounded by a game reserve
- Van Gogh
- Opera performances in National Theatre – unlike drama, all opera performances run with English subtitles.
- Anděl, a busy part of the city with modern architecture and a shopping mall
- The large Nusle Bridge, spans the Nusle Valley, linking New Town to Pankrác, with the Metro running underneath the road
- premonstratensianabbey founded in 1149 and monastic library
- Hotel International Prague, a four-star hotel and Czech cultural monument
The Charles Bridge is a historic bridge from the 14th century.
Prague Castle is the biggest ancient castle in the world.
- Prague Orloj
- St. Nicholas Church in Malá Strana is the best example of the Baroquestyle in Prague.
- Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, the Vyšehrad Cemeteryand the oldest Rotunda of St. Martin.
View of Pařížská St. from Letná Park
Míru Square with Vinohrady Theatre and Church of St. Ludmila
National Theatre offers opera, drama, ballet and other performances.
- Výstaviště compound contains Průmyslový palác, Křižík's Light Fountain and host funfair Lunapark.
Old New Synagogue is Europe's oldest active synagogue. Legend has Golem lying in the loft.
- National Monument on Vítkov Hill, the statue of Jan Žižka is the third largest bronze equestrian statuein the world.
Prague is by far the most visited Czech city. In 2022, Prague was visited by 8,044,324 guests who stayed overnight, of which 84.6% were from abroad. Average number of overnight stays of non-residents was 2.4. Most non-residents arriving to Prague and staying overnight are from the following countries:
In 2021, the most visited tourist destinations of Prague were:
|Rank||Destination||No. of visitors|
|4||Prague Botanical Garden||315,0|
|5||Petřín Lookout Tower||242,8|
|6||Chairlift in Prague Zoo||211,4|
|7||Mirror Maze on Petřín Hill||176,7|
|9||Old Town City Hall||124,2|
|10||Království železnic Smíchov||104,5|
Nine public universities and thirty six private universities are located in the city, including:
- Charles University (UK) founded in 1348, the oldest university in Central Europe
- Czech Technical University (ČVUT) founded in 1707
- University of Chemistry and Technology (VŠCHT) founded in 1920
- University of Economics(VŠE) founded in 1953
- Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (ČZU) founded in 1906/1952
- Czech Police Academy (PA ČR) founded in 1993
Public arts academies
- Academy of Fine Arts(AVU) founded in 1800
- Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design (VŠUP) founded in 1885
- Academy of Performing Arts (AMU) founded in 1945
- Jan Amos Komenský University (UJAK) founded in 2001
- Metropolitan University Prague (MUP) founded in 2001
- The University of Finance and Administration(VSFS) founded in 1999
Largest private colleges
- University College of Business in Prague (VŠO) founded in 2000
- University of Economics and Management (VŠEM) founded in 2001
- College of Entrepreneurship and Law (VŠPP) founded in 2000
- Institute of Hospitality Management (VŠH) founded in 1999
- College of International and Public Relations Prague (VŠMVV) founded in 2001
- CEVRO Institute (CEVRO) founded in 2005
- Ambis College (AMBIS) founded in 1994
- Medical College of Nursing (Vysoká škola zdravotnická) founded in 2005
- Anglo-American University(AAVŠ) founded in 2000
- University of New York in Prague (UNYP) founded in 1998
Science, research and hi-tech centres
The region city of Prague is an important centre of research. It is the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences, including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business incubators and large hospitals performing research and development activities such as the Motol University Hospital or Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, which was the largest transplant center in Europe as of 2019. Universities seated in Prague (see section Colleges and Universities) also represent important centres of science and research activities.
As of 2008[update], there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in the country, counted in full-time equivalents), representing a 3% share of Prague's economically active population. Gross expenditure on research and development accounted for €901.3 million (41.5% of country's total).
Some well-known multinational companies have established research and development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens, Honeywell, Oracle, Microsoft and Broadcom.
Prague was selected to host administration of the EU satellite navigation system Galileo. It started to provide its first services in December 2016 and full completion is expected by 2020.
As of 2017[update], Prague's transport modal share by journey was 52% public transport, 24.5% by car, 22.4% on foot, 0.4% by bike and 0.5% by aeroplane.
The public transport infrastructure consists of the heavily used
The Prague tram system is the
All services (metro, tramways, city buses, funiculars and ferries) have a common ticketing system that operates on a proof-of-payment system. Basic transfer tickets can be bought for 30 and 90-minute rides, short-term tourist passes are available for periods of 24 hours or 3 days, and longer-term tickets can be bought on the smart ticketing system Lítačka, for periods of one month, three months or one year.
Services are run by the
In April 2015, construction finished to extend the green line A further into the northwest corner of Prague closer to the airport.
In operation there are two kinds of units: "
The original Soviet vehicles "
The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and through inner and outer ring roads (partially in operation).
- Inner Ring Road (The City Ring "MO"): surrounds central Prague. It is the longest city tunnel in Europe with a length of 5.5 km (3.4 mi) and five interchanges has been completed to relieve congestion in the north-western part of Prague. Called Blanka tunnel complex and part of the City Ring Road, it was estimated to eventually cost (after several increases) CZK 43 billion. Construction started in 2007 and, after repeated delays, the tunnel officially opened in September 2015. This tunnel complex completes a major part of the inner ring road.
- Outer Ring Road (The Prague Ring "D0"): this ring road will connect all major motorways and speedways that meet each other in Prague region and provide faster transit without a necessity to drive through the city. So far 39 km (24 mi), out of a total planned 83 km (52 mi), is in operation. Most recently, the southern part of this road (with a length of more than 20 km (12 mi)) was opened on 22 September 2010. As of 2021, the next 12 km (7 mi) section between Modletice and Běchovice is planned to be completed in 2025.
The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system links Prague with major European cities (which can be reached without transfers), including Dresden, Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Regensburg and Munich (Germany); Vienna, Graz and Linz (Austria); Warsaw, Katowice and Kraków (Poland); Bratislava and Košice (Slovakia); Budapest (Hungary); Zürich (Switzerland) via Linz or Leipzig; Rijeka (Croatia, seasonal) and Moscow (Russia, not in service due to COVID-19 and Russian invasion of Ukraine). Travel times range between 2 hours to Dresden and 28 hours to Moscow.
Prague's main international railway station is Hlavní nádraží, rail services are also available from other main stations: Masarykovo nádraží, Holešovice and Smíchov, in addition to suburban stations. Commuter rail services operate under the name Esko Praha, which is part of PID (Prague Integrated Transport).
Prague is served by
In 2018, 1–2.5 % of people commute by bike in Prague, depending on season. Cycling is very common as a sport or recreation. As of 2019, there were 194 km (121 mi) of protected cycle paths and routes. Also, there were 50 km (31 mi) of bike lanes and 26 km (16 mi) of specially marked bus lanes that are free to be used by cyclists. As of 2021, there are four companies providing bicycle sharing in Prague, none of them is subsidized by the city: Rekola (1,000 bikes), Nextbike (1,000 bikes), Bolt and Lime.
Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams.
- Sparta Prague (Czech First League) – football club
- Slavia Prague (Czech First League) – football club
- Bohemians 1905 (Czech First League) – football club
- Dukla Prague (Czech 2nd Football League) – football club
- Viktoria Žižkov (Czech 2nd Football League) – football club
- HC Sparta Praha (Czech Extraliga) – ice hockey club
- HC Slavia Praha (Czech 2nd Hockey League) – ice hockey club
- USK Praha (National Basketball League) – basketball club
- Prague Lions (European League of Football) –American football
- EuroleagueFinal Four.
- Strahov Stadium – the largest stadium in the world
- Prague International Marathon
- Prague Open – Tennis Tournament held by the I. Czech Lawn Tennis Club
- Sparta Prague Open – Tennis Tournament held in Prague 7
- Josef Odložil Memorial – athletics meeting
- World Eden Arena.
- Mystic SK8 Cup – World Cup of Skateboarding venue held at the Štvanice skatepark
- Gutovka – sport area with a large concrete skatepark, the highest outdoor climbing wall in Central Europe, four beach volleyball courts and children's playground; Central European Beach Volleyball Championship 2018 took place here.
The city of Prague maintains its own EU delegation in Brussels called Prague House.
Prague was the location of U.S. President Barack Obama's speech on 5 April 2009, which led to the New START treaty with Russia, signed in Prague on 8 April 2010.
The annual conference
Twin towns – sister cities
Prague is twinned with:
A number of other settlements are derived or similar to the name of Prague. In many of these cases, Czech emigration has left a number of namesake cities scattered over the globe, with a notable concentration in the New World.
Additionally, Kłodzko is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague" (German: Klein-Prag). Although now in Poland, it had been traditionally a part of Bohemia until 1763 when it became part of Silesia.
- Churches in Prague
- List of people from Prague
- Outline of the Czech Republic
- Outline of Prague
- List of museums in Prague
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