International Legion (Ukraine)

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from
International Legion of Territorial Defense of Ukraine
)

International Legion
Інтернаціональний легіон
Size
  • 20,000 (claimed)[1][2] as of March, 2022
  • 1,500 (per NYT investigation) as of March 2023
Engagements2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Website
Commanders
Current
commander
Colonel Ruslan Miroshnichenko

The International Legion of Territorial Defence of Ukraine,

Russian invasion of the country.[4] In establishing the force, Ukraine joined more than 90 other nations that have recruited legionnaires and raised foreign legions over the past two centuries.[5]

Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba claimed that by 6 March 2022 more than 20,000 volunteers from 52 countries had enlisted to fight for Ukraine; several thousand more reportedly joined after the announcement. Kuleba withheld further demographic details, citing that several nations forbid their citizens from fighting for foreign governments. However, the March 2023 New York Times investigation found that there may be only 1,500 members in the organization, some of whom were reportedly involved in fraud and stolen valor.[6]

As of November 2022, volunteers from the legion were recruited from 60 countries.[7]

History

Formation of the unit

Under the order by President

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, and its formation was announced in a statement by the Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba on 27 February, three days after the invasion began.[8][9] Kuleba promoted the unit on Twitter, inviting individuals to apply and stating that "together we defeated Hitler, and we will defeat Putin too."[10] On 7 March, the Ukrainian Armed Forces released the first image of International Legion soldiers in trenches on the outskirts of Kyiv and announced that new groups were being deployed to the front each day.[11]

Some foreign volunteers came to Ukraine much earlier, in 2014, to join the fight against the

While these units have officially been integrated into the

While Rękawek said that some foreign fighters that traveled to Ukraine in 2014 held extremist political beliefs and supported the

Russian separatist forces in Donbas, the foreign fighters travelling to Ukraine in early 2022 "don't appear to be motivated, as a group, by a certain set of ideological tropes."[19] He also said the mobilization of foreign fighters in 2022 is much larger than the mobilization in 2014.[20] According to Rękawek, the formation of the International Legion was "an attempt to internationalize the conflict via mobilization of Western individuals for the Ukrainian cause. This development would also assist in embarrassing the Western governments, who in the eyes of many Ukrainians are not doing enough to support Kyiv."[20]

Defection

It was reported on March 2023 that an ex-Legion volunteer named John McIntyre defected to Russia after he was discharged from the legion for bad behavior.[6] He claimed that he went to Ukraine to help Russia fight Nazism.[21]

Historical comparisons

Many commentators have compared the International Legion to the International Brigades of the Spanish Civil War,[22][23][24] which comprised foreign volunteers who supported the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist faction led by fascist general Francisco Franco that sought to overthrow the Republic.[25]

Other commentators have criticized this comparison. Sebastiaan Faber of Oberlin College in the U.S. argued that depicting the Legion as part of a war between fascism and anti-fascism risks playing "into the Kremlin's narrative, which seeks to portray the "special military operation" as an effort to "denazify" its western neighbor." Critics have also highlighted differences in the makeup of the two international units: Volunteers to Spain generally lacked military experience, while those to Ukraine tend to have prior military experience.[26] Moreover, the Brigades were organised by the Communist International, and thus mostly comprised communists with backgrounds in labour movements, whereas the Ukrainian Legion is composed of volunteers from a broader spectrum of ideologies.[26][27]

Elizabeth Grasmeder of Duke University has compared Ukraine's foreign legion to Finland's efforts to recruit legionnaires and other foreign volunteers during the Winter War (1939–1940). Grasmeder argues states are likely to recruit foreign volunteers when fighting wars of "national survival" against another state attempting to annex their territory. Ukraine's conflict with Russia is an interstate conflict of "national survival" against annexation, as was Finland's with the Soviet Union.[4]

Recruitment and selection

Candidates are advised to contact the Defense Attaché of the Ukrainian embassy in their respective country.[28]

The criteria listed for joining included having prior military or medical experience and submitting documents as proof of military service to the Ministry of Defense official at the Ukrainian embassy. People were asked not to bring their own weapons to Ukraine.[29] Most of the volunteers who reached Lviv and applied were accepted.[30]

The First Deputy Interior Minister of Ukraine, Yevhen Yenin, announced in March 2022 that volunteers to the International Legion would be eligible for Ukrainian citizenship, if desired.[31] The necessary probation period is the duration of the war.[32]

A British volunteer said that the contract required to join the International Legion limits pay to ₴7,000 a month (US$230) and extends for the duration of the war, although some volunteers were allowed to leave after signing.[33][34]

It has been reported that initial training and selection of volunteers had led to "uneven" performance and that the initial intake had already been dismissed by the Ukrainian authorities, with one anonymous Ukrainian general stating "we should only take experienced combat veterans — that is the lesson that we are learning... the others don't know what they are getting themselves into – and when they find out, they want to go home".[35]

Controversies

According to The Kyiv Independent, which has received informations from sources inside the Legion, the leadership of the intelligence-run wing of the International Legion is allegedly implicated in various violations, including abuse, theft, and sending soldiers unprepared on reckless missions. The paper also claims that one of the unit's commanders is an alleged former member of a criminal organization from Poland, wanted at home for fraud: the Legion's fighters accuse him of abusing power by ordering soldiers to loot shops, threatening soldiers with a gun, and sexually harassing the legion's female medics.[36]

Members of the Legion, according to The Kyiv Independent, repeatedly reported this to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's national parliament) and the Office of the President of Ukraine, but received no proper answer.[36]

Strength and organization

Kacper Rękawek, a researcher on foreign fighters in Ukraine, stressed the large number of volunteers announced by Ukraine were "people who applied, who got in touch with the Ukrainian Embassy" and not necessarily the number of foreign fighters in Ukraine.[19]

On 3 March 2022, Zelenskyy announced 16,000 foreign volunteers had attempted to join the International Legion.[37]

On 7 March 2022, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba stated that more than 20,000 volunteers from 52 countries have volunteered to fight for Ukraine. He did not mention the home countries of the volunteers, saying that some of the countries forbid their citizens from fighting for other countries. He also did not specify how many of the foreign volunteers have arrived in Ukraine.[1]

Recruits with past military experience have described the legion as insufficiently officered, leading to unnecessary casualties.[3]

Government acknowledgment of nationals serving in the International Legion

In early March 2022, a French government adviser confirmed a dozen French nationals were in Ukraine and had likely joined the International Legion.[38]

The first photo distributed by the Ukrainian armed forces of the International Legion included members from the

better source needed][original research?
]

On 9 March 2022, the National Post reported that an anonymous representative of the International Legion of Territorial Defence of Ukraine had confirmed 550 Canadians were currently in the Canadian Ukrainian Brigade fighting in Ukraine.[43] Belgian Minister of Defence Ludivine Dedonder confirmed on 15 March 2022 that one Belgian soldier had resigned to join the International Legion and another Belgian soldier had deserted to enlist in the International Legion.[44]

Former New Zealand defense minister Ron Mark said that around 20 New Zealanders are fighting for the legion.[45][46]

Structure and units

Some news reports have reported Mamuka Mamulashvili, commander of the Georgian Legion, is commanding all or part of the International Legion, but no official Ukrainian source has confirmed a commander.[12][47]

List of units

The units and their respective nationalities have been reported as being part of the International Legion:

Patch Name Description
Canadian Ukrainian Brigade Patch.png
Canadian-Ukrainian Brigade Canadian and British, including Canadian ex-military.[48]
Patch of the Ukrainian Free Russian Legion.svg
Freedom of Russia Legion Volunteers are former servicemen of the Russian Armed Forces, as well as other Russians and Belarusians volunteers living in Ukraine.[49]
Vovkodav Battalion.png
1st Battalion Vovkodav Consists of Americans, Azeris, Austrians, British, Greeks, Irish, Croatians, Brazilians, Moroccans, Taiwanese, Japanese.
3specbat.png
3rd Special Purpose Battalion
  • Omega Battalion: Composed by Americans, among which are several veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq and former special forces soldiers that were stationed in South Korea.
  • Turan Battalion: Consists of Kazakhstanis, Kyrgyz, and Azerbaijanis.
  • Other Battalion: Consists of Brazilian, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, French and other.
Батальйон імені Джохара Дудаєва.png
Dzhokhar Dudayev Battalion One of several Chechen volunteer armed formations fighting on the side of Ukraine. The battalion is named after the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Dzhokhar Dudayev. Their commander is Adam Osmayev.[50]
Khamzat Gelaev Detachment.png
Khamzat Gelayev Detachment [ru; uk] One of several Chechen volunteer armed formations. The battalion was created in honor of one of the most respected Chechen commanders of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Khamzat Gelayev. Many of its members are veterans from Gelayev's special forces.

Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (with Coat of Arms).svg

Ichkerian Special Purpose Battalion One of several Chechen volunteer armed formations. The battalion is subordinate to the Ministry of Defence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Consists of Chechen veterans of the Chechen wars as well as the Syrian civil-war.
Russian Volunteer Corps logo.svg
Russian Volunteer Corps Formed in August 2022 from Russian
Azov Regiment and other units since 2014.[51]
Dagestan Imam Shamil battalion.png
Imam Shamil Dagestan Battalion [ru; uk] Consists of members of the several ethnic groups of Dagestan
Emblem of the Pahonia Regiment.png
Pahonia Regiment Consists of Belarusians
Емблема добровольчого спецпідрозділу МВС України «Крим».png
Krym Battalion Consists of Crimean Tatars
PolishVolunteerCorps.jpg
Polish Volunteer Corps [ru; uk; pl] Consists of Poles
Belarusian volunteer corps logo.png
Belarusian Volunteer Corps [ru; uk] Consists of Belarusians
KarelianNationalBattalionEmblem.png
Karelian National Battalion Formed in 2023, consists of Karelians.[52] The Battalion is a part of the Karelian National Movement.[53]
Шеврон 2 Інтернаціонального Легіону.png
2nd International Legion [uk] Consists of Ukrainians, Belarusians and Georgians
Bashkort unit flag.png
Bashkir Company Consists of ethnic Bashkirs affiliated with the Committee of Bashkir Resistance[54]
Main Intelligence Directorate
Special Unit of International Legion
Ceska Aerorozvedka Group
Special Combat Team Spook

Other well-known military units composed by foreign nationals are the Belarusian Kastuś Kalinoŭski Regiment, the Chechen Sheikh Mansur Battalion and 34th Assault Battalion "Mad Pack" [ru] and the diverse Norman Brigade. However, these are not part of the International Legion.

Special Forces Wing

A Special Forces wing, known as the Legionnaires Special Service Group (LSSG), is made of foreign fighters and was initiated by the Ukrainian Defense Ministry's intelligence directorate (GUR). This regiment is separate from the regular international legion, but recruits from the force.[55]

The group has been successful in carrying out several attacks behind enemy lines. Operations use small groups, who go into and out of enemy territory clandestinely through jungle routes and seek their targets.[56]

Summary of official international government responses

Country Legality of citizens enlisting Official Stance on International Legion Ref
Algeria Illegal Algeria discourages its citizens from enlisting. [57]
Australia Unclear While legal for an Australian to fight for a foreign government, it may be unlawful to make preparations to do so due to a lack of legal precedent in the area. [58]
Austria Illegal It is illegal for Austrian citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Austrian law. [59]
Belarus Illegal It is illegal for Belarusian citizens to enlist in the International Legion. However, the Belarusian opposition leader, in exile in Poland, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya has endorsed Belarusians enlisting in the International Legion. [60]
Belgium Legal Belgium discourages its citizens from enlisting. However, it is legal for Belgian citizens to enlist under Belgian law. [61][62]
Cambodia Unclear Cambodia discourages its citizens from enlisting. [63]
Canada Legal under certain circumstances Canada allows its citizens to enlist in the International Legion, however Canadian law may technically bar joining a military at war with a "friendly state". [64][65][66]
Croatia Legal under certain circumstances Croatia allows participation in the war on the condition that the constitutional order of that country is not violated, its territorial integrity is undermined and mercenary is not involved. [67][68]
Czech Republic Legal under certain circumstances The Czech Republic allows its citizens to enlist in the International Legion after receiving permission from the Czech president. [69][70]
Denmark Legal under certain circumstances There is no law in Denmark that prohibits Danish citizens from enlisting the International Legion. Danish citizens however, are not allowed to fight in an armed conflict where Denmark is a party, and one fights on the side of the enemy. [71]
Estonia Legal under certain circumstances Prompted by Russia’s attack against Ukraine Penal Codes have been amended to ensure an appropriate punishment for any person who takes part in aggression. Pursuant to the new laws, joining the armed forces of a foreign state committing an act of aggression or any other armed unit participating in an act of aggression committed by a foreign state, participation in the commission of or preparing an act of aggression by a foreign state as well as knowingly and directly, including financially supporting an act of aggression by a foreign state is punishable as a criminal offence. Under the Act, such an activity is punishable by imprisonment of up to five years. If such an act is committed by a legal person, it is punishable by a pecuniary punishment. [72]
Finland Unclear Finland discourages its citizens from enlisting. [73]
France Legal France allows its citizens to enlist in the International Legion. [38]
Georgia Unclear Georgia discourages its citizens from enlisting. [74]
Germany Legal German law does not forbid its citizens to enlist in the International Legion. However, attempting to recruit a German citizen into foreign military service is illegal.[75] [76]
India Illegal It is illegal for Indian citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Indian law. [77]
Indonesia Legal under certain circumstances Indonesian citizens who enlist in a foreign military without permission from the president will lose their citizenship. [78]
Israel Legal under certain circumstances Israeli law has a provision forbidding citizens from joining a foreign military, with a potential punishment of up to three years in prison. This is not applicable if the State of Israel has an agreement with the foreign country in question. It is publicly unknown if there is an agreement with Ukraine, Israel's Foreign Ministry would not comment further. It is not illegal for a foreign country to recruit people in Israel. [79]
Italy Unclear Organizations who enlist for foreign armies are illegal, but there are no provisions for citizens who take part. [80][original research?]
Japan Unclear Japan discourages its citizens from enlisting and the legality of Japanese citizens enlisting is unclear under Japanese law. [81]
Kosovo Illegal It is illegal for Kosovo citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Kosovo law. [82]
Latvia Legal under certain circumstances Latvia allows its citizens to enlist in the International Legion, if the person is not serving to national guard or national army. [64]
Moldova Unclear Moldova discourages its citizens from enlisting into the legion. [83]
Montenegro Illegal It is illegal for Montenegrin citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Montenegrin law. [84]
Netherlands Legal under certain circumstances The Netherlands discourages its citizens from enlisting and it is illegal for active-duty Dutch soldiers to enlist in the International Legion under Dutch law. [85]
New Zealand Legal New Zealand discourages its citizens from enlisting. However, it is legal for New Zealanders to enlist in the International Legion under New Zealand law. [86]
Nigeria Illegal Nigeria bars its citizens from enlisting in the International Legion. [57]
North Macedonia Illegal It is illegal for Macedonian citizens to enlist in the International Legion under North Macedonian law. [82]
Norway Legal Norwegian citizens can legally enlist in the International Legion under Norwegian law. The Norwegian government reminds about dangers, rules and responsibilities. [87]
Pakistan Unclear Pakistan discourages its citizens from enlisting in the International Legion. [88]
Poland Legal under certain circumstances Polish citizens who want to enlist in the International Legion, or any other foreign army, must receive the approval of the Polish Minister of National Defense. [89]
Portugal Legal Although no law prohibits the Portuguese citizens from fighting for the International Legion, the Portuguese government does not encourage any citizen to do it. [90]
Russia Illegal Russia has stated foreign fighters (i.e. Russians fighting for Ukraine) are
mercenaries
.
[91]
Senegal Illegal It is illegal for Senegalese citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Senegalese law. [92]
Serbia Illegal It is illegal for Serbian citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Serbian law. [93]
Singapore Illegal It is illegal for Singaporean citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Singaporean law. [94]
Slovakia Legal under certain circumstances Slovakian citizens who want to join the International Legion must obtain a permit from the Slovak Republic before joining. [95]
South Africa Unclear The legality of enlisting in the International Legion is unclear under South African law. [96]
South Korea Illegal It is illegal for South Korean citizens to enlist in the International Legion under South Korean law. [97]
Spain Legal under certain circumstances Any Spaniard who is neither a soldier nor a member of the Security Corps and Forces may legally enlist in the International Legion. [98]
Sweden Legal There are no legal barriers to Swedish citizens volunteering in another country's military. However, members of the Swedish Armed Forces who do so risk losing their jobs, as they are deemed to be better needed at home. [99][100]
Switzerland Illegal It is illegal for Swiss citizens to enlist in the International Legion under Swiss law. [101]
Taiwan Unclear The government of the Republic of China discourages its citizens from enlisting. [102]
Thailand Legal Thailand discourages its citizens from enlisting. However, it is legal for Thai citizens to enlist under Thai law. [81][103]
Turkey Unclear Turkey has refused to comment on its citizens enlisting in the International Legion. [82]
United Kingdom Illegal but unenforced It is illegal for citizens of the United Kingdom to enlist in the International Legion under British law. However, the last prosecution for violating the law was in 1896 and the government has not threatened its enforcement since the Spanish Civil War. [64][66]
United States Unclear The United States discourages its citizens from enlisting in the International Legion. American law prohibits "a group organized as a military expedition from departing from the United States to take action as a military force against a nation with whom the United States is at peace", but does not "prevent individuals from leaving the United States to fight for a cause in which they believed." [104]
Uzbekistan Illegal It is illegal for Uzbek citizens to enlist in the International Legion. [88]
Vietnam Illegal It is illegal for Vietnamese citizens to enlist in the International Legion. [63]

International response

Afghanistan

On May 2, 2022, there were reports of Afghan refugees with combat experience in the now disbanded Afghan special forces volunteering to fight with assistance from fellow Afghans who can speak Ukrainian and have settled in Ukraine permanently.[105]

On March 10, 2023, most ex-Afghan soldiers trying to volunteer to Ukraine were being turned down out of concern that Wagner may use them to undermine the legion or may be trying to enter Ukraine as a way of traveling further to Europe to escape the Taliban.[106]

Albania

Mamuka Mamulashvili, a commander of foreign volunteers in Ukraine, said in an interview with Euronews Albania on 3 March 2022 that there were currently two Albanians in the International Legion. Mamulashvili also claimed they were waiting on the arrival of about 20–30 other Albanian volunteers who have applied to join the war in Ukraine.[47]

Algeria

In early March 2022, the Algerian government called on Ukraine to not enlist fighters from their country.[57]

Argentina

On 13 March 2022, the Ukrainian embassy in Buenos Aires posted on its social media to recruit Argentinian citizens who wanted to join the International Legion.[107] On 22 March, it was reported that an unknown number of Argentinians have signed up to join.[108]

Australia

On 28 February 2022, when asked about Australians volunteering for Ukraine, the Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison told reporters "I would counsel against that purely for the safety of Australians that they would not travel to Ukraine," and "I would say at this time the legality of such actions are uncertain under Australian law."[109]

As of 28 December 2022, four Australian volunteers were killed in Ukraine.[110]

Austria

Austrian law stipulates any citizen who enters into the military services of a foreign country has their citizenship revoked. In March 2022, Ministry of the Interior spokesman Harald Sörös confirmed that the government intends to prosecute any violators of the law. When asked whether the law would also be applied to Austrians providing only

humanitarian assistance, Sörös responded it was "a matter for the courts to decide, not the executive." Austrian constitutional and administrative lawyer Heinz Mayer argued enforcement of the law could leave Austrians who attempt to join the International Legion or provide humanitarian assistance stateless.[59]

Belarus

On 9 March 2022,

Kastuś Kalinoŭski.[111] The battalion eventually grew to a regiment of over 1000 volunteers.[112] It is not part of the International Legion in order to preserve greater autonomy.[113]

On 30 March 2022, it was reported that more Belarusian volunteers will be assigned to another volunteer unit called the Pahonia Regiment.[114][115]

Belgium

In Belgian law, it is not illegal for a Belgian citizen to enlist for service in a foreign army.[116] However, Time reported on 7 March 2022 that Belgium was dissuading its veterans from joining the International Legion.[61] The first contingent of seven volunteers left Belgium for Ukraine on 4 March and included two Belgian Turks and a Belgian veteran of the Afghanistan War as well as Eastern European immigrants.[117]

The Ukrainian embassy in Brussels confirmed on 15 March that 18 Belgian residents had arrived in Ukraine to enlist in the international legion while a further 92 had expressed interest in joining.[118] Among those who had made contact with the Ukrainian Embassy were said to be Italian, French, Moroccan, and Luxembourg nationals.[116] At least two members of the Belgian Land Component disobeyed orders to enlist with the International Legion.[119]

It was subsequently reported that two Belgians had been immediately despatched to the front-line while the remainder had been concentrated at Yavoriv military base at the time of its bombing on 13 March. It was subsequently reported on 23 March that "more than half" of the 18 had returned to Belgium, either to convalesce after the Yavoriv bombing or as a result of dissatisfaction with their conditions of service.[120][121] Concerns were raised about the personal backgrounds and political profile of some of the Belgian volunteers.[122]

According to De Morgen, 14 Belgians travelled to fight in Ukraine between February and June 2022. By this date, nine had returned home and two had apparently been killed in action.[123] One of the two was a 27-year old Belgian Ukrainian called Artem Dymyd from Charleroi who had enlisted in the Ukrainian Army in 2014 and who was killed by rocket fire in Donetsk.[124]

Brazil

As of 6 March, about 500 Brazilians are mobilizing on WhatsApp, Telegram and social networks groups to enlist. The Embassy of Ukraine in Brazil said that "it is not enlisting for the Ukrainian Foreign Legion" or "campaigning to join this military formation". The costs are up to US$1,5 thousand per person, including air tickets and documentation.[125] There are over 600,000 people of Ukrainian descent living in Brazil.[126]

As of July 6, three Brazilian volunteers were killed fighting in Ukraine. André Hack Bahi was killed on June 4 while helping fellow volunteers escape during fighting in the Luhansk region.[127][128] Thalita do Valle, a female model and ex-Kurdish Pershmerga volunteer was killed in Kharkiv on June 30 during an attack on a Ukrainian bunker,[129][130] which also resulted in the death of Douglas Búrigo when he tried to look for her since she didn't evacuate from the bunker in time.[131] Brazilian diplomats confirmed the reports on July 5.[131]

Bulgaria

A Bulgarian citizen has declared he intends to go to Ukraine to join the International Legion, according to the Telegraph newspaper. The announcement was made on Twitter by his acquaintance. According to her, there are other compatriots who also intend to fight in the service of Ukraine.[132][failed verification]

On September 25, 2022, Bulgarian National Assembly candidate Ivan Kalchev has volunteered to participate with the legion in the Ukrainian counteroffensive.[133]

Cambodia

In early March 2022, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen urged Cambodians not to travel to Ukraine and fight with Ukrainians in the legion.[63]

Canada

The 1937 Foreign Enlistment Act, enacted during the Spanish Civil War, prohibits Canadians from joining a foreign volunteer force against Canada's allies.[134] In March 2022, Minister of National Defence Anita Anand noted that "the legalities of the situation are indeterminate at this time."[135] The government had announced that it is up to individual Canadians to decide whether they want to join and that they "respect personal choices",[135][136] though the government "is not facilitating" Canadians who are looking to join the International Legion.[137]

Canada is home to the second-largest population of the Ukrainian diaspora after Russia.[135] Due to a high number of Canadian volunteers, a separate Canadian battalion within the Legion, the Canadian Ukrainian Brigade, was established to avoid language barriers and logistics issues.[43] In early March, it claimed that it has recruited at least 600 people.[135] A second formation of Canadian and British volunteers was formed under the name Norman Brigade. It is not part of Ukraine's official International Legion.[138] A famous former Royal 22nd Regiment sniper nicknamed "Wali" from Montreal, called the deadliest sniper in the world after he reportedly eliminated 40 people a day as a sniper in Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq, also arrived in Ukraine to join the fight against Russia.[139][140] He returned to his home country after two months.[141]

Some of the soldiers in the Norman Brigade are concerned on whether the Norman Brigade's leader, nom de guerre Hrulf, is incompetent in managing the unit.[138]

Chile

Since early March 2022 there have been reports of volunteers trying to join the International Legion in Ukraine. TVN a Chilean public service broadcaster made an interview with one of the volunteers.[142] Later in March various Chilean media spread the story of Luis Lagos, a former member of the Chilean national police force(Carabiniers of Chile) who joined the forces of Ukraine.[143]

Colombia

On 4 March 2022, Colombian newspaper El Espectador reported that at least 50 former Colombian soldiers will join the International Legion in Ukraine. El Espectador managed to get in touch with one of the former Colombian soldiers, identified as Camilo Sánchez, who said in the interview he and the group of ex-soldiers had contacted a Ukrainian military official to enlist.[144]

On 23 July 2022, the first Colombian casualty was an ex-Colombian police officer named Christian Camilo Márquez was killed fighting in Izyum.[145]

Croatia

Croatian law penalizes organizing the departure or going to war in another country if it violates the constitutional order of that country, undermines the territorial integrity of the country and if the person is a mercenary.[146]

Prior to the formation of International Legion,

Azov Battalion to fight in the War in the Donbas in 2014–2015.[147]

Post-formation

On 27 February 2022, Croatian Prime Minister Andrej Plenković commented on news of the possible departure of Croatian volunteers to Ukraine after the announcement of the formation of the International Legion, saying "Every departure to Ukraine is an act of individuals and they take personal responsibility".[67]

On 28 February, it was reported by Dnevnik.hr and

causus belli to join Ukraine.[147][148]

The Croatian military envoy to Moscow Željko Akrap was summoned to the Russian Defense Ministry on 2 March 2022 and 3 March 2022 over allegations that 200 Croatian volunteers had joined the Ukrainian army. During the second call, the Russian side tried to hand over a protest note to Akrap but he refused to take it.[149]

Cuba

The Embassy of Ukraine in Havana attempted to recruit for the International Legion in March 2022.[150]

Czech Republic

Citizens of the Czech Republic are allowed to join other countries' armed forces as foreign volunteers if they get an approval by the President of the Czech Republic. On 28 February, the president Miloš Zeman stated he would be in favor of allowing potential volunteers to join the newly formed Ukrainian legion.[151] The Ministry of Defence has already reported its first applicants.[152]

It's reported that 600 Czechs have joined the legion as volunteers.[153]

Denmark

Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen said on 27 February 2022, that volunteering was "a choice anyone could make."[61]

On 10 March, the Ukrainian Ambassador in Denmark reported that more than 100 Danes had volunteered.[154]

On 7 April, an anonymous Danish volunteer soldier claimed to have killed 100 Russian soldiers during various operations.[155]

On 26 April, a 25 year old was the first Dane to have been confirmed killed in combat.[156][157]

Ecuador

The Honorary Consul of Ukraine in Ecuador announced on 8 March 2022, that approximately 850 Ecuadorians had contacted the consulate and the Embassy of Ukraine in Lima attempting to volunteer with the International Legion.[158]

Estonia

The parliamentary groups of Estonia's Riigikogu are currently debating whether to allow Estonian citizens to volunteer to fight for Ukraine.

Minister of Justice Maris Lauri (Reform) said on Monday that Estonian law is unclear in regards to serving in a foreign military and whether doing so is punishable."Based on Estonian laws, nobody can be punished as soon as they go to serve a foreign country," Lauri said. "We don't have a single clause that states that a person should be punished or that they must for example be granted permission or that they must go through some kind of procedure in order to go volunteer."

The justice minister did note, however, that rules exist according to which if someone joins another country's military to fight, then they should inform the state and be granted specific permission to do so. Should anyone go fight on the Russian side, she added, then that is a punishable offense.

"If these are people who are residing in Estonia on the basis of a visa or residence permit, then they simply cannot come back here again," Lauri explained. "And if people come back who received [Estonian] citizenship via naturalization, then they may be stripped of their citizenship."

She added that anyone who has gone to fight who commits war crimes will likewise face punishment.

According to the minister, this matter is scheduled to be discussed at this week's government meeting as well.[159]

On August 30, 2022, President Zelensky awarded German Barinov with the Order of Courage, 3rd Class.[160]

Finland

Finland's Ministry for Foreign Affairs has said that it has no information regarding how many people from Finland have left to join the fight in Ukraine. "The Foreign Ministry's travel bulletin recommends leaving Ukraine immediately. The ministry is highly limited in its ability to assist Finns in the war zone," ministry representatives told Yle in an email.

According to a report by Helsingin Sanomat, the Finnish Defence Forces does not recommend or advise Finns to apply to fight for a foreign cause.[73]

France

Hervé Grandjean, a spokesperson for France's Ministry for the Armed Forces, said individual volunteers could be "integrated in a body of Ukrainian volunteers" and "we cannot prevent them from leaving, (but) nor can we sanction that type of project." However, under French law, France can order a five-year jail term for "mercenaries" who are "specifically recruited to fight in an armed conflict," are neither "from a state involved in the armed conflict" or a "member of such state's military," and who are paid to "participate or try to participate in the hostilities."[38]

A significant response has been reported in France to Zelenskyy's call for foreign fighters, with online interest estimated in the thousands, and some having already gone to Ukraine as of 3 March.[161] The French Foreign Legion prevents current serving legionnaires from serving in Ukraine.[162][163][164][165]

As of July 9, 2022, two French volunteers were killed in action.[166]

Germany

On 2 March,

Minister of the Interior Nancy Faeser and Minister of Justice Marco Buschmann declared the Federal Government would not prevent its own citizens from going to Ukraine to fight in the war. These persons also would not face criminal prosecution. This applies to potential missions for both Ukrainians and Russians.[76] The German Federal Police specified they would not let right-wing extremists travel to Ukraine.[167]

Georgia

On 28 February 50 Georgian volunteers arrived in Ukraine. "A group of Georgian volunteers arrived in Ukraine to help the wounded in Ukraine and, if necessary, to take part in hostilities. About 50 people managed to enter Ukraine by crossing the Sarpi customs point. They left for Ukraine on February 28."- Georgian Radio Free reported.[168]

Due to Georgia already having had military conflicts with Russia in the 1992 Abkhazian War and 2008 War, many Georgians sympathized with Ukrainians and therefore went to help. Georgians and Ukrainians have a history of sending volunteers to each other's countries during times of conflict or helping each other in political and humanitarian matters during the aforementioned wars. Georgians have supported Ukraine since the start of the Russo-Ukrainian conflicts. Ukraine has already established a battalion of Georgian fighters called the Georgian Legion since the War in Donbass, but new volunteers would be stationed in the newly formed International Legion of Territorial Defence of Ukraine.

On 1 March, a new batch of volunteers was to fly to Ukraine but the Georgian government canceled their flight. In response, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky denounced the Georgian government's "immoral position" and has recalled Ukraine's ambassador to Georgia.[74]

Former Georgian Defense Minister, Irakli Okruashvili with some volunteers also traveled to Ukraine and joined the call to arms to defend Ukraine against Russia. His squad then joined the International Legion.[169]

Greece

The Ukrainian embassy in Athens, in early March 2022, received dozens of requests from Greek citizens and Ukrainian diaspora asking for information on how they could join the International Legion.[170][unreliable source?]

Hong Kong

The participation of any Hong Konger in the international legion was first officially documented in a thank-you video posted on Twitter on 18 December 2022 by the Ukrainian Ministry of Defence.[171][172] In that video, the Ukrainian military thanked the 20,000 volunteers from more than 50 countries. Before being deleted, the video featured the national flags of the home countries of the volunteers, including the Black Bauhinia flag of Hong Kong. The black flag is actually not the official flag of Hong Kong but a modified version that was widely used by pro-democracy protesters during the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests. The gratitude video prompted strong criticism from the Chinese and Hong Kong governments.[173]

Hungary

Sky News reported at least one Hungarian, Akos Horvath, traveled to Ukraine to join the International Legion in March 2022.[174]

India

The Ukrainian Embassy in India tweeted asking Indians to volunteer to fight for Ukraine in early March 2022, but it was later deleted after the Indian Ministry of External Affairs objected.[175] Indian domestic law clearly bars foreign fighters under Chapter VI, Section 121-130 of the Indian Penal Code. Foreign fighters can be sentenced to up to seven years upon return to India.[77]

Over 500 Indians from across the country, including some veterans have submitted applications volunteering to join the International Legion created to fight Russian forces in Ukraine.[77]

However, only one 21-year-old Indian student in Kharkiv is known to have joined the

Georgian National Legion in 2022.[176] Later on, the student's family said that the student is willing to leave the Georgian National Legion and return to his home in India.[177]

The first photo of International Legion distributed by Ukraine reportedly showed an Indian volunteer.[40] The Indian volunteer reportedly shown in the photo is believed to be the 21-year-old student who had joined the Georgian National Legion earlier on.[178]

Iran

Sky News reported in early March 2022 that at least one Iranian had traveled to Ukraine to join the International Legion.[174]

Iraq

Oz Katerji, a freelance war correspondent based in Kyiv, tweeted on 1 March that "a group of Kurds have joined the Ukrainian foreign legion" to fight against Russia.[179]

Ireland

Brendan Murphy, an Irish businessman fleeing Ukraine stated in an interview published 2 March 2022 that Irish people had already arrived in the country to fight with the International Legion. He said: "The first Irish veterans – they have to have military experience – arrived in Ukraine last night, which is good to see because they have the Irish tricolor on their arm".[180]

Rory Mason was the first Irish volunteer killed in the Kharkiv region in late September or early October 2022.[181] In late April 2023, Finbar Cafferkey was killed fighting in the Battle of Bakhmut.[182][183]

Israel

Ukrainian initiatives to recruit Israelis began on 26 February in tandem with thousands of Israelis

protesting against the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[184][185]

Many protesters had connections to Ukraine or other post-Soviet countries, but also a significant contingent of Israelis attended with no connection to the former

USSR at all.[184]

The Ukrainian Embassy focused on recruiting Israelis through its Facebook page.[185]

By early March, it was reported that Israelis had been recruited and were heading to Ukraine. Most were veterans of the

Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), and were primarily of Ukrainian, Russian, or other former USSR roots, but not exclusively so, with recruits of Druze Israeli and American-Israeli backgrounds also noted.[186]

On 25 March, it was reported by the Israeli national newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth that a group of former IDF soldiers were training Ukrainian civilians; the ex-commando in charge stated to journalists that the program originated as a rescue mission for Ukraine's Jewish population but changed as the Ukrainian Jews required armed escorts and then military training. Yedioth Ahronoth reported that an unidentified Israeli official stated that the Israeli defense establishment was "looking the other way", in part because of the increasingly pro-Ukrainian sentiments and growing suspicion toward Russia, the official himself noting his own solidarity toward Ukraine in the face of "the worst kind of Russian aggression".[187]

On 1 September 2022, Israeli citizen Dmitry Fialka was killed fighting in eastern Ukraine.[188][189]

Italy

Prior to the formation of the International Legion, about 50 to 60 Italian nationals travelled to Ukraine as foreign fighters before the

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. 25 to 30 supported Ukraine and 25 to 30 supported the Donbas separatists.[190]

On March 2, 2022, the Ukraine Consulate in Milan posted on Facebook inviting Italians to join the International Legion, but the post was later deleted. Italian law does not forbid enlistment in a foreign army, although there are provisions banning the organisation of said enlistment, as well as mercenaries.[191]

Giulia Schiff, an ex-Italian Air Force pilot, was reported to be in Kyiv after she enlisted with the legion's special forces unit.[192][193]

On September 20, 2022, Benjamin Giorgio Galli, an Italian volunteer was killed in combat against Russian troops.[194]

Japan

On 1 March, Foreign Minister

Embassy of Ukraine in Japan is calling for such (volunteer soldiers), but I would like you to refrain from traveling to Ukraine, regardless of your purpose."[195]

As of 2 March 2022, 70 Japanese men have applied to be volunteers of the volunteer foreign legion. Of these, 50 are former members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces and two are former members of the French Foreign Legion.[196] It was reported that an unnamed company in Tokyo assisted the Embassy in recruiting potential candidates.[92]

According to lawyers interviewed, a Japanese person who works under a foreign military to wage war against another country could potentially be charged under Article 93 of the Penal Code. The law, however, has only been used against Japanese nationals who were arrested for plans to work under

ISIL.[197]

On 16 March, CNN Turkey reported that three Japanese nationals with military experience were allowed to enter Ukraine.[198][199] On November 7, Asahi Shimbun interviewed an anonymous Japanese volunteer who joined the legion with minimal military experience.[200]

On 11 August, Russian Defense Ministry reports claim that nine Japanese nationals are in the legion while one left Ukraine.[201]

On 11 November, Tokyo has confirmed that a Japanese volunteer was killed fighting Russian troops,[202] in only days after mourning his Taiwanese comrade's death in the Luhansk front.[203]

Kosovo

Kosovar law bars participation in foreign armed groups. Despite this two Kosovar citizens reportedly travelled to join the International Legion in early March 2022.[82]

Several members of the Kosovar diaspora in Switzerland reportedly contacted the embassy in Bern in early March 2022 to join the International Legion.[101]

Latvia

The Saeima of Latvia unanimously approved immunity from prosecution for Latvian volunteers who wish to join combat on the side of the Ukrainian military.[204][205]

On 8 March 2022, member of the

New Conservative Party volunteered to fight with fellow Latvians in Ukraine.[206]

Lithuania

On 7 March 2022, Time reported an estimated 200 Lithuanians have registered to fight with the Ukrainian embassy.[61]

The first photo of International Legion distributed by Ukraine reportedly showed Lithuanian volunteers.[40]

Malaysia

In late February 2022, The Star reported that two Malaysians joined the Territorial Defense Army in Kyiv.[207]

Mexico

In early March 2022, the State Service of Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine reported Mexican volunteers had joined the International Legion in defense of Kyiv.[208]

The first photo distributed by Ukraine of the International Legion reportedly showed Mexican volunteers.[40]

Moldova

The Prime Minister of Moldova, Natalia Gavrilița, was asked during a press conference on 28 February 2022 whether citizens of Moldova can join the International Legion. She responded "We are a neutral country and we will act in the light of neutrality. The Government of the Republic of Moldova is not involved in such actions."[83]

By April 2022 dozens of Moldovan citizens were fighting in Ukraine against the Russian occupiers, most of them enlisted in the Ukrainian army in the first few days of the war.[209] [210] In a statement made by a group of Moldovans fighting on the front in Ukraine, in November 2022, the number is more then 300 Moldovan citizens in the International Legion.[211]

Montenegro

In March 2022, the Democratic Front urged the Montenegrin authorities to take action to stop the recruitment of volunteer fighters for the war in Ukraine, after the Ukrainian Embassy in Podgorica posted on Facebook calling for foreign volunteers for the International Legion. Montenegrin law criminalizes participation in foreign conflicts and those convicted face prison sentences of up to ten years.[84]

Netherlands

Minister of Defence Kajsa Ollongren advised Dutch nationals not to travel to Ukraine saying "The country's travel advice is red. It is extremely dangerous." Additionally, Dutch military code bars active Dutch soldiers from joining a foreign army and Dutch law bars civilians from enlisting in an enemy army in a war in which the Netherlands participates. However, it may be legal for Dutch civilians to join the International Legion.[85]

On 4 March 2022, the Ukrainian embassy in the Hague declined to comment on the number of Dutch volunteers.[85] As of 7 March 2022, it is estimated around 200 Dutchmen have attempted to join the legion at the Ukrainian embassy in The Hague. According to the Ukrainian embassy's national coordinator for the International Legion, Gert Snitselaar, 40 volunteers have departed the Netherlands for Ukraine.[212]

There have already been reports of some Dutch casualties in the fighting around Lviv and Kyiv. Gert Snitselaar states: "I was in contact with a few (volunteers) this morning, but since then there has been no communication,"[213] In response to the bombing of Lviv. He is certain Dutch citizens have perished during the fighting. However, no indication of the number of casualties has been given.[214]

The first official Dutch casualty of the war perished on May 4, 2022.[215] On September 20, 2022, it was reported that another Dutch volunteer was killed in Kharkiv.[216]

New Zealand

New Zealand officially has a "do not travel" warning issued for Ukraine and the Ukrainian consul in Auckland, Oleksandr Kirichuk, says he cannot assist New Zealanders in travelling to Ukraine. Despite this he says over 500 New Zealanders have attempted to volunteer to fight in Ukraine against Russia.[217]

The New Zealand Herald reported on an ex-British Army/New Zealand Army veteran (and PR citizen) recruited to the legion, though the unnamed veteran said that he will use his British passport to travel.[218]

On August 25, 2022, Dominic Abelen was reported as the first New Zealand volunteer to be killed in action in the legion, who joined while on leave from the New Zealand military.[219] It was further reported that Abelen was recruited to the LSSG.[220] On February 4, 2023, it's reported that Abelen may have been shot and killed in a friendly fire incident.[221]

Nigeria

On 7 March 2022, Nigeria's Ministry of Foreign Affairs declared that Nigerian citizens are not allowed to serve as mercenaries or foreign volunteers for Ukraine.[57] It has been reported that an unknown number of Nigerians wish to join the legion in Ukraine.[222]

In a BBC Focus Africa program, Russian Ministry of Defense officials claimed that 38 Nigerians were killed while under Ukrainian command.[223]

North Macedonia

On 8 March 2022 the Ukrainian Embassy posted an appeal on social media for volunteers to join the International legion. However, North Macedonian law bars joining foreign armies. There have been no reported cases of Macedonian citizens going to Ukraine to join the International Legion.[82]

Norway

On 7 March 2022, Time reported the Ukrainian embassy in Norway estimated 300 Norwegian nationals had signed up to volunteer at their embassy.[61]

As of 8 April 2022, Sandra Andersen Eira, an ex-politician from the Sámi Parliament of Norway, volunteered to work in the legion as a medic.[224]

Peru

A Peruvian former soldier discharged from the Peruvian army, César Eduardo Pérez Farfán, is reported to have traveled to Ukraine to join the International legion.[225]

Poland

Polish citizens may join the army of foreign countries only after approval of a written application by the Polish Ministry of National Defense. There are several formal conditions that must be met in order to issue a permit. Among others, one cannot currently be in active military service and joining the army of a foreign country cannot violate the interests of the Republic of Poland.[89] A group of at least 30 people in Poland who were willing to join the International Legion have reportedly organized to begin training.[226]

Portugal

The Government of Ukraine stated on 4 March 2022 that "some Portuguese" were already fighting in the International Legion of Territorial Defence. Sniper unit former Ranger force COE. Vitaliy Mukhin, spokesman for the Government, did not specify the concrete number of Portuguese who are already in Ukrainian territory.[227]

Romania

Dozens of Romanians sent messages to the Ukrainian embassy in Bucharest to be accepted into the International Legion.[228]

Russia

Ukraine has said some former Russian soldiers have switched sides and have now joined Kyiv's forces. The Ukrainian defense ministry said on its Telegram channel on March 30 that commanders of the Freedom of Russia Legion were visiting detained former Russian military personnel "in order to select those who wish to serve."[229]

On 3 March 2022,

mercenaries.[91]

Senegal

On 3 March, Senegal's foreign ministry condemned a social media post by the country's Ukrainian embassy calling for volunteers as illegal under Senegalese law. The Ukrainian ambassador to Senegal was summoned and asked to take down the post.[92]

It was reported that 36 Senegalese nationals attempted to volunteer at the Ukrainian embassy in Dakar.[230]

In a BBC Focus Africa program on June 23, 2022, Russian Ministry of Defense officials claimed that four Senegalese volunteers were killed while under Ukrainian command.[223]

Serbia

Serbian law bars its nationals from participation in foreign conflicts. In March 2022, Serbian president Aleksandar Vučić said "As for volunteers, since both sides have called for volunteers, the Serbian criminal code – and we will amend it to be stricter – outlaws participation in any conflicts that do not defend Serbia's territorial integrity," and "Any of those who think they should take part in some war, we will punish severely in accordance with our constitution and our laws."[93]

Nevertheless, a spokesman for the International Legion confirmed that there indeed are a number of Serb fighters in the legion and that they are fighting alongside fighters from neighboring countries.[231]

Singapore

Vivian Balakrishnan, Singaporean Minister of Foreign Affairs, said during a Parliament session on 22 February that Singaporeans must only fight for Singaporean national security interests and not fight in other places even for noble reasons.[232]

The Singaporean Ministry of Home Affairs has stated that Singaporeans who are in Ukraine are potentially liable for any criminal offences committed outside Singapore, especially when fighting Russian-backed forces, with offenders liable for imprisonment from 15 years to life with fines included.[94]

Slovakia

Some Slovakian citizens have indicated they want to go fight in the International Legion, according to Minister of Defense Jaroslav Naď. However, it is illegal for Slovakian citizens to join a foreign army without a permit from the Slovakian government.[95]

South Africa

It is unclear whether volunteering for foreign military service is illegal under South African law. The 1998 Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act was passed to "regulate the rendering of foreign military assistance" by South Africans, but was largely referred to as a "mercenary bill" targeting former

mercenaries. The 2006 Prohibition of Mercenary Activities and Regulation of Certain Activities in Country of Armed Conflict Act amended the bill, but appears to have never been enforced.[96]

On 11 March 2022, Ukraine's

foreign legion
. She also said the embassy in
Pretoria had received hundreds of requests to volunteer from people from across the region, including Madagascar, Mauritius, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia, and Botswana.[96]

The National Post reported that at least one South African national was recruited into the Norman Brigade.

South Korea

On 7 March 2022, the Ukrainian Embassy in Seoul reported it had received some 100 applications from South Korean volunteers.[233] Various news sources claim a well-known South Korean Navy SEAL team is already in Ukraine fighting, which includes YouTube/TV celebrity Ken Rhee.[234][235] The Ukrainian Embassy declined to verify the number of South Korean volunteer soldiers who have departed for Ukraine, citing "security reasons".[233]

The Republic of Korea Marine Corps reported on 22 March 2022 that a Marine from the 1st Marine Division deserted from his unit and traveled to Ukraine to fight with the Legion. State Border Guard Service of Ukraine guards prohibited him from entering after Seoul passed information about him going AWOL before crossing the Polish-Ukrainian border.[236] On 28 March, it was reported the deserter evaded being arrested and was on his way to join the legion.[237]

Damien Magrou reported to South Korean media on 28 March that South Korean volunteers are already deployed and fighting Russian troops.[238][239]

On 30 March, Ken Rhee mentioned that he's involved in creating volunteer-based special forces units in cooperation with the Ukrainian military.[240] In May 2022, Rhee has been deployed in various special forces operations, working with other volunteers with special forces background with the Ukrainian Spetsnaz.[241][242] On May 20, Rhee was reported to be injured in the field, but is expected to make a recovery when he goes back to South Korea.[243] Rhee mentioned that he's willing to be investigated by the police over his presence in Ukraine and has politely turned down Ukrainian nationality.[244] The Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency is in the process of adding his name to a no-fly list.[245]

On June 18, 2022, the South Korean government is checking claims that four South Korean nationals are killed in action fighting with the legion.[246] The report also mentioned that 13 South Koreans are working in the legion.[246]

On February 23, 2023, anonymous South Korean volunteers were interviewed, including a volunteer named Kim who used to be a commando with the Republic of Korea Army Special Warfare Command and last worked under the NIS for nine years before he went to Ukraine.[247]

Spain

On 7 March 2022, Time reported Spanish nationals had enlisted at the Ukrainian consulate in Barcelona.[61]

Sri Lanka

As of July 2022, an ex-Sri Lankan commando known as “Dentist” has been deployed to the field in Kharkiv.[56]

Sweden

Very shortly after the appeal for volunteers several hundreds of Swedish military volunteers enlisted in the International Legion for Ukraine, according to the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet. On 25 March 2022, TT News Agency reported that 678 Swedes were already on the ground fighting the Russian forces in Ukraine.[248]

The first photo distributed by Ukraine of the International Legion reportedly showed Swedish volunteers.[40]

In April 2023, former Swedish politician Caroline Nordengrip enlisted in the legion.[249]

Switzerland

In early March, 35 people contacted the Ukrainian Embassy in Bern to join the international legion, according to Radio Télévision Suisse.[250] Among these volunteers, three people are of Swiss nationality.

According to Article 94 of the Swiss Military Penal Code, such service is prohibited for Swiss without permission of the Federal Council, under penalty of a fine or imprisonment for a maximum of three years.[101]

On May 5, 2022, a Swiss national and two French nationals were reported to be traveling to Ukraine to join the legion.[250]

Syria

Some members of groups opposing

Syrian Civil War have attempted to travel to Ukraine, motivated by Russia's support of the Assad regime.[230]

Taiwan

Taiwan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded a question in a press conference regarding the official stance towards any Taiwanese national who wants to join the International Legion in the war of Ukraine, stated "the government's consistent position is to call on all Taiwanese nationals to avoid traveling to Ukraine, due to the deteriorating situation in there."[102] "The government fully understands the sentiment of its nationals who want to stand for righteousness and give their support to Ukraine. However, on the standpoint of protecting the safety of its people and the risk of war, the government advises its nationals to avoid going there." and reiterated "in order to urge Russia to stop its military aggression against Ukraine, Taiwan will participate in the economic sanctions imposed on Russia along with the international community."[102][251]

Due to the lack of formal diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Taiwan, no diplomatic missions were established in either side. The Representative Office of Poland in Taipei suggested that the Taiwanese volunteers first need to travel to Poland, and enlist with the Ukrainian Embassy in Warsaw, but the Polish Office in Taipei declined to comment when the press tried to verify, neither confirm nor deny that such information is held.[251]

On 22 March, a Taiwanese Amis volunteer named Wang Jui-ti traveled to Helsinki to hand his application to join the Legion.[252] On 29 March, he said that the application was not successful because the legion changed its requirements for volunteers to have military experience with combat exposure.[253] However, he was advised by Ukrainian embassy staff in Vilnus, Lithuania to instead help the refugees in Poland.[254]

On 10 April, it was reported that a Taiwanese man named Wang Nan-ying (known as Naive Wang),[255] who lived in Kharkiv for eight years, enlisted in the legion after the war started while helping refugees in Poland.[256] He is fluent in Ukrainian and Russian[255] aside from English, Japanese and Mandarin.[257]

On 13 May, an ex-Taiwanese marine is reported to have been recruited in the legion and is deployed in Eastern Ukraine.[258]

As of 3 July, around 10 Taiwanese nationals were recruited to the legion.[259]

On 2 November, a 25-year-old

Carpathian Sich Battalion, was reported as the first East Asian soldier killed in action in the war,[260][261] after covering 3 colleagues to retreat under a tank siege during the eastern Ukraine campaign in Luhansk Oblast.[262][263]

Thailand

The Thai government stated that there is no law that bans Thai citizens from volunteering to fight in foreign legions, but they should "consider the potential grave danger as Russian forces pound Ukrainian cities with heavy weapons."[103]

Over 2,000 pro-democracy activists in Thailand have attempted to sign up to join the International Legion. However the Ukrainian embassy in Bangkok did not confirm how many had successfully volunteered for the International Legion.[103]

On 18 March 2022, Ukrainian chargé d'affaires Oleksandr Lysak spoke to Thai-based reporters in Bangkok and told them that the Ukrainian military has not recruited any Thais to work in the legion.[264]

Turkey

Turkey does not have a law that bars foreign fighters, but frequently prosecutes them upon return to Turkey for violating criminal or anti-terror laws. The Turkish authorities have not commented on Turkish citizens joining the war in Ukraine.[82]

Turkish news reports have confirmed some Turkish citizens and members of the Turkish diaspora had attempted to join the International legion. Some Turkish nationals in Ukraine have been turned away from the International Legion.[82]

A Turkish citizen who has been living in Ukraine said he had signed up for the foreign legion along with 6 other Turkish citizens but they were later rejected. He claimed that the Turkish authorities had asked Ukraine not to accept any Turkish citizens into its Foreign Legion.[265]

United Kingdom

Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom said "the people of Ukraine are fighting for freedom and democracy, not just for Ukraine but also for the whole of Europe because that is what President Vladimir Putin is challenging. And absolutely, if people want to support that struggle, I would support them in doing that."[266] However, then prime minister Boris Johnson's office did not endorse Truss's statement.[267] The statement was also criticized by several politicians who said volunteers may be in violation of the Foreign Enlistment Act 1870.[268] It has been reported those who travel to Ukraine may be acting in contravention of UK anti-terrorism laws, though legal experts said prosecution would be unlikely owing to the UK government's support for Ukraine's armed resistance.[269]

Ukrainian sources said 6,000 Britons had registered an interest in joining.[270] The Times reported that over 150 former paratroopers who served in the War in Afghanistan had joined and were travelling to the front line.[271] UK military officials instructed regular and reserve personnel not to travel to Ukraine.[272]

On 9 March, a 19-year old Coldstream Guard soldier left his barracks at Windsor and traveled to Poland in order to enlist with the legion.[273] He was detained upon his return to the UK on 21 March.[274]

The first photo distributed by Ukraine of the International Legion reportedly showed volunteers from the United Kingdom.[40]

On August 15, 2022, three captured British citizens, two International Legion volunteers and an aid worker, pleaded not guilty to charges of fighting as mercenaries in a court in the Donetsk People's Republic. The same court had previously passed death sentences on two British members of regular Ukrainian units, under the same charges.[275]

In September 2022, five British nationals, including two who were sentenced to death, were freed from Russian captivity in a prisoner swap with Ukrainian forces. Aiden Aslin, John Harding, Dylan Healy, Andrew Hill and Shaun Pinner all returned home to the UK.[276]

As of January 2023, Eight British volunteer fighters and aid workers were known to be killed in Ukraine. Scott Sibley was killed on April 22, 2022, during fighting in Mykolaiv from mortar bombardment[277] while 19-year-old Jordan Gatley was killed in fighting against Russian troops in Severodonetsk alongside Ukrainian troops.[278] Craig Mackintosh was killed on August 24, 2022 while working as a volunteer medic.[279] Ex-Army reservist and dual Ukrainian-British national Viktor Yatsunyk was killed by a landmine in Izium.[280] Simon Lingard died of shrapnel wounds after his unit came under attack from Russian forces.[281] Chris Parry and Andrew Bagshaw were killed whilst attempting a humanitarian evacuation of civilians in eastern Ukraine.[282] Jonathan Shenkin died ' in an act of bravery' whilst working as a paramedic.[283] Another British aid worker, Paul Urey, died in detention with signs of 'possible unspeakable torture' after being captured by pro-Russian separatist forces.[284]

United States

The

United States citizens from taking up arms while on U.S. territory against any country at peace with the United States. It is unclear whether the United States Congress
will pass legislation to waive this restriction with respect to the conflict in Ukraine.

On 3 March 2022, the Ukrainian embassy in Washington, DC announced that 3,000 U.S. citizens had signed up to volunteer.[286] By 10 March 2022, the embassy had announced that 6,000 United States citizens had attempted to sign up for the International Legion. However, as of 10 March, only 100 were approved to join.[287]

The first photo distributed by Ukraine of the International Legion reportedly showed American volunteers.[40]

Uruguay

On February 1, 2023, an Uruguayan volunteer codenamed Teddy was reported to be fighting in Ukraine since February 24, 2022.[210]

Venezuela

In the Ukrainian capital, a Venezuelan man and his wife joined the International Legion to fight for the country after the Russian invasion.[288]

José David Chaparro, a Venezuelan from San Cristóbal who settled in Kyiv in the early 90s and served as Venezuela's chargé d'affaires in Moscow between 2001 and 2005, enlisted in the Territorial Defense Forces in the second day of the invasion and became the commander of a division of Ukrainian volunteers. Chaparro's unit has helped donating food, water, commodities and fuel to civilians affected by Russian bombings.[289]

Vietnam

Under Article 425 of the Vietnamese Criminal Code, it states that anyone who fights as a mercenary to fight against another country will be imprisoned from 5 to 15 years.[63] Despite this, an unknown number of Vietnamese military veterans have expressed their desire to help the Ukrainians.[63]

Notable individuals who enlisted

Casualties

Some casualties have been officially reported. However, there is no way to determine the exact number of casualties due to the fog of war. In the most notable episode, on 13 March, Russian missiles struck Yavoriv military base near the Polish border, killing 35 people and injuring 134 people, according to Ukrainian officials.[307] As many as 1,000 foreign fighters had been training at the base as part of the Ukrainian Foreign Legion.[308]

According to an interview with a former German volunteer, around 800 to 1,000 people were at the base at the time of the Russian attack, of whom 100 were presumed dead.[309][310]

Foreign volunteers killed in Ukraine as of 27 May 2023
Country Volunteers killed Refs
 Georgia 47 [311]
 Belarus 45 [312]
 Azerbaijan 30 [313]
 United States 24 [314]
 France 10 [315]
 Poland 10 [316]
 United Kingdom 9 [317]
 Russia 9 [318][319]
 Colombia 7 [320]
 Israel 6 [321]
 Canada 5 [322]
 Hungary 5 [323]
 South Korea 5 [324]
 Sweden 5 [325]
 Australia 4 [326]
 Brazil 3 [327]
 Ireland 3 [328]
 Belgium 2 [123]
 Czech Republic 2 [329]
 Estonia 2 [330]
 Germany 2 [331]
 Netherlands 2 [332][216]
 New Zealand 2 [333]
 Argentina 1 [334]
 Austria 1 [335]
 Bulgaria 1 [336]
 Croatia 1 [337]
 Denmark 1 [338]
 Italy 1 [339]
 Japan 1 [340]
 Kazakhstan 1 [341]
 Portugal 1 [342]
 Spain 1 [343]
 Taiwan 1 [262][263]
 Turkey 1 [344]
 Uzbekistan 1 [345]
Total 252

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ukrainian: Інтернаціональний легіон територіальної оборони України, romanizedInternatsionalnyi lehion terytorialnoi oborony Ukrainy

References

  1. ^
    Times of Israel. AP. 7 March 2022. Archived
    from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  2. ^ "Ukraine crisis: 20,000 foreign volunteers in Ukraine to fight Russians, says foreign minister". 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  3. ^ a b McCready, Alastair (29 March 2022). "Returning Soldiers Reveal the Dark Side of Life in the Ukrainian Foreign Legion". VICE. But while commending the "impressive" Ukrainian resistance and everything achieved by the Foreign Legion in a short space of time, Le also described a lack of structure and leadership in its ranks. This is something he says has resulted in unnecessary casualties, and could be remedied by embedding a Ukrainian officer in every unit.
  4. ^ a b Grasmeder, Elizabeth M.F. (2022). "Lessons from Finland for Ukraine and its Foreign Legion". War on the Rocks. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  5. S2CID 236094319
    . Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  6. ^ from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  7. ^ "Ukraine war: Meet the Georgian Legion joining the fight against Russia's invasion".
  8. ^ Taylor, Will (27 February 2022). "Liz Truss backs Brits who want to fight Russia in Ukraine's 'international legion'". LBC News. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  9. ^ Vohra, Anchal (7 March 2022). "Ukraine's Foreign Legion Is Ready for Battle". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  10. ^ Anglesey, Anders (27 February 2022). "Ukraine creates foreign legion as volunteers from abroad join the fight". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  11. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces [@UkrArmyBlog] (7 March 2022). Перші добровольці Інтернаціонального легіону Територіальної оборони України вже на позиціях на околицях Києва. Добровольці з США, Великої Британії, Швеції, Литви, Мексики, і навіть Індії. Далі буде... [The first volunteers of the International Legion for the Territorial Defense of Ukraine is already in position on the outskirts of Kyiv. Volunteers from the United States, Great Britain, Sweden, Lithuania, Mexico, and even India. To be continued...] (Tweet) (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022 – via Twitter.
  12. ^ a b c Hume, Tim; Langston, Henry (28 February 2022). "Foreign Fighters Are Rushing to Join Ukraine's New International Battalion". Vice. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  13. ^ Rekawek, Kacper (18 March 2022). "Ukraine's Foreign Legion: 12 important points". University of Oslo. Center for Research on Extremism. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  14. ^ Goncharova, Olena (18 October 2015). "Foreign fighters struggle for legal status in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  15. ^ "Georgian volunteers in Ukraine war quit military unit after 'provocations'". Democracy and Freedom Watch. 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  16. ^ Walker, Shaun (24 July 2015). "'We like partisan warfare.' Chechens fighting in Ukraine – on both sides". New East network: Ukraine. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  17. ^ Грынеўскі, Улад (2021). Расея можа паўтарыць украінскі сцэнар у Беларусі [Russia may repeat the Ukraine affair in Belarus]. Беларускае Радыё (in Belarusian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  18. ^ "First pictures of the Batallion n.a. Noman Çelebicihan posted". Politics. Crimean New Agency. 5 February 2016. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017.
  19. ^ a b Olmstead, Molly (10 March 2022). "Who Are the Americans Who Went to Fight in Ukraine?". Slate. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  20. ^ a b Rekawek, Kacper (18 March 2022). "Ukraine's Foreign Legion: 12 important points". University of Oslo. C-REX - Center for Research on Extremism. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  21. ^ Cook, Ellie (1 March 2023). "U.S. man says he fought for Ukraine to gather intel then defected to Russia". Newsweek. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  22. ^ O'Connor, Emmet (11 March 2022). "International Brigades for Ukraine? The lessons from Spain". RTE. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  23. ^ Harding, Luke (11 March 2022). "'My plan is there is no plan': the foreign fighters flocking to Ukraine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  24. ^ Fink, Naureen (10 March 2022). "Opinion: Foreign Fighters Are Heading to Ukraine. That's A Moment for Worry". Politico. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  25. ^ Tremlett, Giles (12 March 2022). "No pasarán: anti-fascist slogan takes on new significance in Ukraine crisis". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  26. ^ a b Faber, Sebastiaan (17 March 2022). "Ukraine's foreign fighters have little in common with those who signed up to fight in the Spanish Civil War". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  27. ^ Preston, Paul (4 March 2022). "From the role of international volunteers to debates about Western intervention, there are many comparisons to be made between Ukraine and the Spanish Civil War". LSE British Politics and Policy. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  28. ^ "The International Legion for the Territorial Defense of Ukraine was created". VisitUkraine.Today. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  29. ^ Altman, Howard; Athey, Philip (3 March 2022). "Volunteer fighters arrive in Ukraine. But the untrained should stay home". Military Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  30. ^ Marshall, Andrew R.C. (8 March 2022). "For foreign fighters, Ukraine offers purpose, camaraderie and a cause". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  31. ^ "Foreign volunteers who help Ukraine will be eligible for citizenship in the future". Russia-Ukraine-Conflict. ABC7 Denver. American Broadcasting Company. Scripps National. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  32. ^ Forrest, Brett (12 March 2022). "Ukraine's New Foreign Legion Takes the Fight to Russian Forces". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  33. ^ Clapp, Alexander (11 March 2022). "Fighters with Ukraine's foreign legion are being asked to sign indefinite contracts. Some have refused". The Economist. Archived from the original on 12 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  34. ^ McLoughlin, Bill (4 March 2022). "Ukraine: Foreign fighters 'offered £1,500 a day to fight against Russia'". www.standard.co.uk.
  35. ^ Milburn, Andrew (18 March 2022). "Legion of the damned: Inside Ukraine's army of misfits, veterans, and war tourists in the fight against Russia". Task & Purpose. Archived from the original on 21 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  36. ^ a b Myroniuk, Anna; Khrebet, Alexander (17 August 2022). "Suicide missions, abuse, physical threats: International Legion fighters speak out against leadership's misconduct". The Kyiv Independent.
  37. ^ Bella, Timothy; Timsit, Annabelle (3 March 2022). "Zelensky says 16,000 foreigners have volunteered to fight for Ukraine against Russian invasion". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  38. ^ a b c de La Baume, Maïa (3 March 2022). "French volunteers rally to Zelenskyy's call to join war in Ukraine". Politico. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  39. ^ Accessed 30 April 2022, Absent UK soldiers may have travelled to Ukraine, British Army says BBC.com
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Johnson, Bridgett (8 March 2022). "U.S., Mexico, India Volunteers Among Foreign Force Fighting for Ukraine, Says Military". Homeland Security Today. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  41. ^ Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs [@MFA_Ukraine] (14 March 2022). "Tristan, from Belgium: "I came to join the International Legion of Defense of #Ukraine for freedom in Europe. I had to come & do what I can do best, do what I can do to protect Ukrainian people" Freedom is a choice. Join the brave! fightforua.org #StopRussianAggression" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022 – via Twitter.
  42. ^ Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs [@MFA_Ukraine] (16 March 2022). "Ralf, from Finland, joined the International Legion of Defense of Ukraine: "There are a lot of people who came to #Ukraine to fight the Russians & defend democracy and freedom" Freedom is a choice. Join the brave! fightforua.org" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022 – via Twitter.
  43. ^ a b Blackwell, Tom (9 March 2022). "Exclusive: So many Canadian fighters in Ukraine, they have their own battalion, source says". National Post.
  44. ^ "Twee Belgische militairen zijn naar Oekraïne getrokken om mee te vechten tegen Rusland" [Two Belgian soldiers have left for Ukraine to join the fight against the Russians]. HLN (in Dutch). 15 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  45. ^ "Small number of New Zealand personnel fighting in Ukraine - former defence minister". Radio New Zealand. 25 August 2022.
  46. ^ "Kiwis 'could join Ukraine revenge mission'". 5 September 2022.
  47. ^ a b "Dy shqiptarë po luftojnë në Ukrainë, thotë komandanti i Legjionit të Vullnetarëve të Huaj" [Two Albanians are fighting in Ukraine, says the commander of the Foreign Volunteer Legion]. Zéri (in Albanian). 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  48. ^ Blackwell, Tom (11 March 2022). "Exclusive: So many Canadian fighters in Ukraine, they have their own battalion, source says". National Post. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  49. ^ Cole, Brendan (30 March 2022). "Former Russian Soldiers Join Ukraine Against Putin's Invasion, Kyiv Says". Newsweek. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  50. ^ "Chechen and Tatar Muslims take up arms to fight for Ukraine". Deutsche Welle. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  51. ^ "Российская оппозиция начинает вооруженное сопротивление Путину: подписано декларацию". Главком | Glavcom (in Russian). 31 August 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  52. ^ Закревская, София (21 January 2023). "Карельские националисты создали батальон в составе ВСУ и пообещали бороться за освобождение края от российской оккупации". OBOZREVATEL NEWS (in Russian). Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  53. ^ Степанов, Александр (23 January 2023). "Пропагандистский батальон «Карелия» или «Союз меча и орала»". Черника (in Russian). Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  54. ^ "Как пытаются раскачать Башкирию". stoletie.ru. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  55. ^ Starr, Michael (8 March 2022). "Ukraine forms special forces unit for foreign fighters: The special forces unit, separate from the recently established International Defense Legion, is already operational and in combat with Russian forces, GUR claimed". World News. The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  56. ^ a b "Freiwillige Kämpfer in der Ukraine: Aus Sri Lanka an die Front bei Charkiw". bild.de (in German). 19 July 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  57. ^ a b c d Mwakideu, Chrispin; Wasike, Andrew; Assignon, Carole (8 March 2022). Hairsine, Kate (ed.). "Ukraine's bid to recruit fighters from Africa sparks uproar: Nigeria, Senegal and Algeria have criticized Ukraine's efforts to enlist international fighters as it resists the Russian invasion. Analysts say those who have responded to the call need to reconsider". Africa. Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  58. ^ "Yes Sir, No Sir: The Legality of Australians Fighting in Foreign Conflicts". Perth International Law Journal. 1 May 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  59. ^ a b Golder, Joseph (12 March 2022). "Neutral Austria Says Citizens Who Fight For Ukraine Will Lose Their Passports And Become Stateless: Various countries, including the U.S. and U.K., support Ukraine, but discourage citizens from traveling there to fight". Zenger. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  60. ^ "Svetlana Tikhanovskaya: Is the fate of Belarus tied to the fate of Ukraine?" (Podcast Interview). BBC. 11 March 2022. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  61. ^ a b c d e f Abend, Lisa (7 March 2022). "Meet the Foreign Volunteers Risking Their Lives to Defend Ukraine—and Europe". Time. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  62. ^ Clapson, Colin (15 March 2022). "Volunteers from Belgium sign up for Ukraine's foreign legion". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  63. ^ a b c d e "Sign Me Up for Ukraine Fight: Not So Fast, Say SE Asia Govts". Benar News. 8 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  64. ^ a b c Thomsen, Jacqueline (14 March 2022). "Explainer: Is it legal for foreigners to fight for Ukraine?". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  65. ^ Berthiaume, Lee (23 March 2022). "Canadian troops ordered to stay away as foreign fighters flock to Ukraine". The Globe and Mail – via www.theglobeandmail.com.
  66. ^ a b "Plenković o hrvatskim dragovoljcima koji idu u Ukrajinu i trebaju li se bojati kaznenog progona: "Idu tamo na osobnu odgovornost"" [Plenković on Croatian volunteers going to Ukraine and whether they should be afraid of criminal prosecution: "They go there on personal responsibility"]. Dnevnik.hr (in Croatian). 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  67. ^ Zebić, Enis; Čilić, Una (2 March 2022). "Iz Hrvatske na ratište u Ukrajini samo na 'osobnu odgovornost'". Radio Slobodna Evropa (in Serbo-Croatian). Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  68. ^ Willoughby, Ian (24 June 2022). "Czechs fighting in Ukraine without president's permission investigated". Radio Prague. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  69. ^ "Dva české dobrovolníky podezřívá NCOZ z rabování na Ukrajině, píše iRozhlas". Czech Television (in Czech). 25 June 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  70. ^ "Syrienkrigere blev straffet - ikke ulovligt at kæmpe i Ukraine" [Syrian fighters were punished - not illegal to fight in Ukraine]. ritzau (in Danish). JydskeVestkysten. 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022. På et kort pressemøde søndag aften sagde statsminister Mette Frederiksen (S), at der ikke er noget juridisk til hinder for, at danskere eller herboende ukrainere tager til Ukraine og kæmper mod Rusland.
  71. ^ "The Riigikogu banned using of symbols supporting acts of aggression by foreign states". Riigikogu. 21 April 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  72. ^ a b "Young Finns join fight in Ukraine". Yle. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  73. ^ a b "Ukraine recalls ambassador to Georgia over 'immoral position' of Georgian Government". OC Media. 1 March 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  74. ^ StGB § 109h
  75. ^ a b Heine, Hannes (2 March 2022). "Nach Aufruf für internationale Legion: Deutsche dürften an Ukraine-Krieg teilnehmen – auch für Russland – Politik" [After a call for an international legion: Germans are allowed to take part in the Ukraine war – also for Russia – politics]. Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  76. ^ from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  77. ^ "Undang-undang Nomor 12 tahun 2006 tentang Kewarganegaraan Republik Indonesia" [Law No. 12 of 2006 on Citizenship of the Republic of Indonesia]. Article 23.d, Law No. 12 of 2006 (PDF).
  78. ^ Gross, Judah Ari (26 February 2022). "Ukrainian Embassy seeks to recruit Israelis to fight Russian invasion: In now-deleted post, mission calls for volunteers to 'participate in combat actions against the Russian aggressor'; Israeli Foreign Ministry says it's aware of the matter". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  79. ^ "Art. n° 288 "Arruolamenti o armamenti non autorizzati a servizio di uno Stato estero" del Codice Penale" [Art. N ° 288 "Unauthorized enlistments or armaments in the service of a foreign State" of the Criminal Code] (in Italian). 6 April 2018. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2022. Chiunque nel territorio dello Stato e senza approvazione del Governo arruola o arma cittadini, perché militino al servizio o a favore dello straniero, è punito con la reclusione da quattro a quindici anni. La pena è aumentata se fra gli arruolati sono militari in servizio, o persone tuttora soggette agli obblighi del servizio militare. [Whoever in the territory of the State and without the approval of the Government enlists or arms citizens, to serve or serve the foreigner, is punished with imprisonment from four to fifteen years. The penalty is increased if among the enlisted soldiers are soldiers in service, or persons still subject to the obligations of military service.]
  80. ^ a b Jayakumar, Shashi (17 March 2022). "Foreign Fighters from Asia in Ukraine? Prospects and Possibilities". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g Buyuk, Hamdi Firat; Isufi, Perparim; Marusic, Sinisa Jakov (9 March 2022). "Balkan Fighters Risk Criminal Charges for Joining Ukraine's Defence". News. BalkanInsight. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  82. ^ a b "Cetățenii RM se pot înscrie în Legiunea Internațională anunțată de Zelenski pentru a lupta în Ucraina? Răspunsul premierului" [Can the citizens of the Republic of Moldova join the International Legion announced by Zelenski to fight in Ukraine? The Prime Minister's answer]. Jurnal.md (in Romanian). 17 March 2022. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  83. ^ a b Kajosevic, Samir (1 March 2022). "Montenegro Urged to Prevent Volunteer Fighters Going to Ukraine". News. BalkanInsight. Archived from the original on 11 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  84. ^ a b c "Nederlanders willen vechten in Oekraïne: 'Ik ben fit en sterk, nietsdoen is geen optie'" [The Dutch want to fight in Ukraine: 'I am fit and strong, doing nothing is not an option']. RTL Nieuws (in Dutch). 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  85. ^ Lloyd, Marnie (17 March 2022). "There is little to stop New Zealanders leaving to fight in Ukraine – but few legal protections if they do". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  86. ^ Bjåen, Bjørgulv K. (27 February 2022). "Frivillige melder seg til Ukraina - lovleg for nordmenn å krige i ukrainsk uniform" [Free to enlist in Ukraine – legal for Norwegians to fight in Ukrainian uniforms]. News. vårtland (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  87. ^ a b Lipin, Michael (23 March 2022). "Foreigners Fighting for Ukraine Elicit Scorn, Ambivalence, Support From Governments". Voice of America. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  88. ^ a b "Czy Polak może walczyć za Ukrainę w legionie cudzoziemskim?" [Can a Pole fight for Ukraine in a foreign legion?]. Rzeczpospolita (in Polish). 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  89. ^ Donn, Natasha (16 March 2022). "Portuguese fighters in Ukraine". Portugal Resident. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  90. ^ a b Lemon, Jason (3 March 2022). "Russia Vows Prosecution of Foreign Fighters After 16K Join Ukraine". Newsweek.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  91. ^ a b c "Senegal calls Ukraine embassy war recruitment post illegal, summons ambassador". Reuters. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  92. ^ a b "Serbia vows punishment for volunteers going to Ukraine". The Thread Times. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  93. ^ a b Baharudin, Hariz (10 March 2022). "Offence for anyone in Singapore to travel to Ukraine to take up arms: MHA". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  94. ^ a b "Niektorí Slováci chcú ísť bojovať na Ukrajinu, pomoc na fronte je trestná" [Some Slovaks want to go to fight in Ukraine, help at the front is a criminal offense]. RTVS (in Slovak). 15 March 2022. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  95. ^ a b c Fabricius, Peter (13 March 2022). "Hundreds of South Africans eager to join fight against Russian invasion – Ukraine's ambassador to SA". War in Europe. Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 13 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  96. ^ Sajid, Islamuddin (18 March 2022). "9 South Koreans currently in Ukraine as volunteer fighters: Report". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  97. ^ Moreno, Cristóbal (23 March 2022). "¿Mercenarios o voluntarios? Los combatientes extranjeros en Ucrania" [Mercenaries or volunteers? Foreign combatants in Ukraine]. El Debate (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  98. ^ "Frivilliga till Ukraina" [Volunteers for Ukraine]. Sveriges Riksdag (in Swedish). 16 March 2022. Retrieved 7 December 2022.
  99. ^ Örtegren, Julia (24 September 2022). "Oklart hur många svenskar som åkt till Ukraina för att kriga - Försvarsmakten: "Kan inte hindra någon"" [Unclear how many Swedes who have gone to Ukraine to fight - Swedish Armed Forces: "We can't stop anyone"]. SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 7 December 2022.
  100. ^ a b c "Des volontaires suisses dans la légion internationale en Ukraine" [Swiss volunteers in the international legion in Ukraine]. Radio Télévision Suisse (in French). 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  101. ^ a b c Kelvin Chen (3 March 2022). "Foreign ministry discourages Taiwanese from joining Ukrainian foreign legion". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  102. ^ a b c Wongcha-um, Panu; Kuhakan, Jiraporn (3 March 2022). "Thai democracy activists sign up to fight 'tyranny' in Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  103. ^ Rudesill, Dakota (15 March 2022). "American Fighters, Ukraine, and the Neutrality Act: The Law and the Urgent Need for Clarity". Just Security. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  104. ^ Latifi, Ali M.; Haris, Mujtaba (2 May 2022). "Russia-Ukraine war: Meet the Afghan refugees fighting Moscow's latest invasion". News. Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 2 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  105. ^ "Ukraine is turning down hundreds of Afghan soldiers who want to join its war effort | Semafor". 9 March 2023.
  106. ^ "Ucrania recluta voluntarios argentinos que quieran enfrentarse contra la invasión rusa" [Ukraine recruits Argentine volunteers who want to confront the Russian invasion]. Ámbito (in Spanish). 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  107. ^ Whitehead, James Francis (22 March 2022). "Argentine volunteers enlisting to join International Legion to defend Ukraine: Many are willing to pay for the 8,000-mile journey themselves if it means helping the Ukrainian people". Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  108. ^ Stayner, Tom (28 February 2022). "Scott Morrison advises Australians against travelling to Ukraine to fight Russian invasion: Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has called on "citizens of the world" to join the fight against Russia as their forces battle to counter Moscow's advances". Australia. SBS News. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  109. ^ "Australian man who died fighting in Ukraine remembered as 'defender of freedom'". the Guardian. 28 December 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  110. ^ "Беларусы стварылі батальён імя Каліноўскага для абароны Кіева" [Belarusians create Kalinouski battalion to defend Kyiv] (in Belarusian). euroradio.fm. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  111. ^ "Батальён Каліноўскага становіцца полкам" [Kalinoŭski Battalion Becomes a Regiment]. Наша Ніва // Nasha Niva (in Belarusian). Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  112. ^ Tsikhanenka, Igor; Lipin, Michael (2 April 2022). "How Belarusian Fighters in Ukraine Evolved Into Prominent Force Against Russian Invasion". VOA. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  113. ^ "Another Belarusian military unit announces formation for battles for Ukraine, this time regiment". Daily News: News from non-English countries. Svoboda. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  114. ^ Kanaujia, Vertika (31 March 2022). "Understanding Belarus: Is it Putin's accomplice or a victim?". World News. Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  115. ^ a b Lefevre, Muriel (3 March 2022). "Guerre en Ukraine: est-ce que des Belges peuvent aller combattre ?". Le Vif. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  116. ^ De Leebeeck, Esther (4 March 2022). "De premiers Belges sont partis combattre en Ukraine: "Nous allons nous battre pour la liberté et faire face aux dictateurs"". 7sur7. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  117. ^ gjs (15 March 2022). "20-tal Belgen al in Oekraïne om de wapens op te nemen: 'Doen wat ik kan om het Oekraïense volk te beschermen'" [20 Belgians already in Ukraine to take up arms: 'Do what I can to protect the Ukrainian people']. De Standaard (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  118. ^ "Twee Belgische militairen naar Oekraïne om mee te vechten tegen Rusland: "Geen wapens meegenomen, mogelijk wel kledij"" (in Dutch). VRT NWS. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
  119. ^ De Leebeeck, Esther (23 March 2022). "Meer dan de helft van de Belgische strijders in Oekraïne is teruggekeerd naar ons land: "Ik verloor mijn gehoor na raketaanval op ons militair kamp"". Het Laatste Nieuws. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  120. ^ "Over half of Belgian volunteers have returned from Ukraine". The Brussels Times. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  121. ^ "Malades mentaux, personne fichée, déserteur... Le sulfureux casting belge de la Légion ukrainienne" (in French). Le Figaro. LENA. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  122. ^ a b "Russisch ministerie van Defensie: 'Twee Belgische strijders omgekomen in Oekraïne'" (in Dutch). De Morgen. 17 June 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  123. ^ "Guerre en Ukraine: qui est Artem Dymyd, l'un des deux Belges tués à Donetsk ?" (in French). La Libre Belgique. 22 June 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  124. ^ "Prontos para morrer: brasileiros gastam até R$ 7 mil para ir à Ucrânia" [Ready to die: Brazilians spend up to R$7,000 to go to Ukraine]. Uol (in Brazilian Portuguese). 5 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  125. ^ "Etnias: Ucranianos" [Ethnicities: Ukrainians]. Portal of Services and Information of the Government of Paraná (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 12 March 2007.
  126. ^ "Itamaraty confirma morte de brasileiro que foi para a guerra na Ucrânia". 9 June 2022.
  127. ^ "Itamaraty confirms the death of a Brazilian in the Ukrainian War - News Bulletin 247".
  128. ^ "'I don't know if I will come back alive': Brazilian killed in Ukraine reveals fear in voice". 3 July 2022.
  129. ^ "Brazilian model turned sniper killed in Ukraine missile strike". Newsweek. 6 July 2022.
  130. ^ a b "Brasileiros que lutavam como voluntários morrem durante conflito na Ucrânia".
  131. ^ "ВОЙНАТА: БГ доброволец отива в Украйна" [THE WAR: BG volunteer goes to Ukraine]. Telegraph (in Bulgarian). 15 March 2022.[permanent dead link]
  132. ^ Teoharova, Dilyana (25 September 2022). "Bulgarian Parliamentary Candidate Too Busy to Campaign as He Fights in Ukraine". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  133. ^ Brewster, Murray; Burke, Ashley (4 March 2022). "Under a foreign flag: Canadian veterans explain why they're fighting for Ukraine". politics. CBC. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  134. ^ a b c d Haber, Paul (5 March 2022). "Canadians answer the call to defend Ukraine". W5. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  135. ^ "Up to Canadians whether they fight for Ukraine foreign legion, Foreign Minister says". The Globe and Mail. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  136. ^ Aiello, Rachel (4 March 2022). "Canada announces trade action against Russia, more lethal aid and new immigration streams for Ukrainians". CTV News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  137. ^ a b Blackwell, Tom (7 May 2022). "Incompetence or the realities of war? Turmoil for Canadian-led foreign battalion in Ukraine". National Post.
  138. ^ "'Wali', Canada's deadliest sniper arrives in Ukraine to help fight Russia". Marca. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  139. from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  140. ^ Péloquin, Tristan (6 May 2022). "Retour du tireur d'élite Wali | " La guerre, c'est une déception terrible "". La Presse (in French). Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  141. ^ "50 exmilitares de Colombia se unirán a Legión Internacional de Defensa en Ucrania" [Volunteer in Chile offers to fight in Ukraine]. www.24horas.cl (in Spanish). 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  142. ^ "La historia de Luis Lagos, el chileno que se unió a la milicia ucraniana para pelear contra los rusos" [The story of Luis Lagos, the chilean who joined the Ukraine militia to fight against the russians]. www.eldinamo.cl (in Spanish). 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  143. ^ "Exmilitares colombianos se preparan para defender a Ucrania de la invasión rusa" [Colombian ex-military men prepare to defend Ukraine from Russian invasion]. El Espectador (in Spanish). 4 March 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  144. ^ "Christian Márquez, el colombiano que murió en Ucrania, peleando una guerra ajena". 23 July 2022.
  145. ^ Zebić, Enis; Čilić, Una (1 March 2022). "Iz Hrvatske na ratište u Ukrajini samo na 'osobnu odgovornost'" [From Croatia to the battlefield in Ukraine only on 'personal responsibility']. Radio Slobodna Evropa (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  146. ^ a b Grgurinovic, Matea (28 February 2022). "Croatian Volunteer Fighters Head for Ukrainian Frontline". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  147. ^ "EKSKLUZIVNO Prvi hrvatski dragovoljci stigli do napadnute zemlje: Znamo da će ovaj rat teško stati samo na Ukrajini" [EXCLUSIVE The first Croatian volunteers reached the attacked country: "We know that this war will be difficult to stop only in Ukraine"]. Dnevnik.hr. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  148. ^ Žabec, Krešimir (3 March 2022). "Pogledajte trenutak kada je hrvatski vojni ataše odbio prosvjednu notu ruskog ministarstva: 'Jako su se iznenadili'" [Take a look at the moment when the Croatian military attache rejected the protest note of the Russian ministry: 'They were very surprised']. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  149. ^ "Así pueden los cubanos unirse como voluntarios a las fuerzas de defensa de Ucrania" [This is how Cubans can join the Ukrainian defense forces as volunteers]. Diario de Cuba (in Spanish). 15 March 2022. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  150. ^ "Zeman se staví příznivě k výjimce, aby mohli Češi bojovat na Ukrajině" [Zeman is in favor of the exception so that the Czechs can fight in Ukraine]. www.ceskenoviny.cz (in Czech). Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  151. ^ "První Češi se hlásí o možnost bojovat na Ukrajině. Zeman to nebude blokovat – Seznam Zprávy" [The first Czechs report the possibility of fighting in Ukraine. Zeman won't block it - Message List]. www.seznamzpravy.cz. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  152. ^ "600 Czechs volunteered to fight for Ukraine". War. The Odessa Journal. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  153. ^ Byskov Svendsen, Anders; Henriksen, Morten; Nygaard Just, Andreas; Steffensen, Mark. "Ukraines ambassadør: Flere end 100 danskere er allerede i kamp mod Rusland ved fronten". dr.dk (in Danish). DR. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  154. ^ "Dansk finskytte hævder at have dræbt tæt på 100 russere i Ukraine - TV 2" [Danish sniper claims to have killed close to 100 Russians in Ukraine - TV 2]. nyheder.tv2.dk. 7 April 2022.
  155. ^ Barfoed, Christian Krabbe; Winther, Frank Bisgaard (30 April 2022). "Udenrigsministeriet: 25-årig dansker anses for dræbt i Ukraine" [Ministry of Foreign Affairs: 25-year-old Dane is considered killed in Ukraine]. tvsyd.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  156. ^ Søe, Carl-Emil (28 April 2022). "Tantholdt: 25-årig dansker dræbt i Ukraine - liget er i russisk varetægt" [Tantholdt: 25-year-old Dane killed in Ukraine - the body is in Russian custody]. nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). TV2. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  157. ^ "Ecuatorianos quieren ir a Ucrania para defenderlo" [Ecuadorians want to go to Ukraine to defend it]. El Comercio (in Spanish). 15 March 2022. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  158. ^ "Parliamentary groups debate allowing Estonian citizens to fight in Ukraine". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  159. ^ "Daily: First Estonian volunteer awarded Ukraine's Order for Courage". 30 August 2022.
  160. New York Times. Archived
    from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  161. ^ "French Foreign Legion and Ukraine". Foreign Legion Info. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  162. ^ "France stops foreign legionnaires heading toward Ukraine". Arab News. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  163. ^ "14 Foreign Legion soldiers stopped in Paris on way to Ukraine". The connexion. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  164. ^ "French Foreign Legion troops desert to join fighting in Ukraine". The Local France. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  165. ^ "Adrien Dugay-Leyoudec, second French fighter killed in Ukraine, went to defend a 'just cause'". Le Monde.fr. 9 July 2022.
  166. ^ "Bundespolizei will Rechtsextremisten an Ausreise in den Krieg hindern" [Federal police want to prevent right-wing extremists from leaving for the war]. rnd.de (in German). 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  167. ^ "Part of Georgian volunteers group have arrived in Ukraine". Radio Tavisupleba. 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  168. ^ Kirsten Robertson (9 March 2022). "Georgian ex-defence minister joins Ukraine fight and helps capture Russian tank". OC Media. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  169. ^ "Greeks call the Ukrainian embassy asking to fight against Russia". Greek City Times. 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  170. ^ Cheung, Rachel (21 December 2022). "The World Keeps Getting the Hong Kong Flag and Anthem Wrong". Vice News. Archived from the original on 21 December 2022.
  171. ^ "烏克蘭發布影片感謝 52 國 見香港「黑洋紫荊旗」". 同文Commons (in Chinese). 19 December 2022. Archived from the original on 19 December 2022.
  172. ^ Shi, Stacy (21 December 2022). "Ukraine under fire for black HK flag blunder". The Standard (Hong Kong). Archived from the original on 22 December 2022.
  173. ^ a b Mercer, David (1 March 2022). "Ukraine invasion: Britons 'willing to die' to defeat Putin's army as volunteers prepare to travel to fight Russian invasion". Sky News. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  174. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy. "India flags Ukrainian embassy tweet; post deleted". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  175. from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  176. ^ "Student, fighting against Russian forces, willing to return from Ukraine: Family sources". ThePrint. 12 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  177. ^ "Indian Among 'Foreign Volunteers' Fighting Against Russian Invasion, Claims Ukraine". IndiaTimes. 8 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  178. ^ "The foreign fighters joining the war in Ukraine". The Week. 18 March 2022. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  179. ^ "Irish people 'arrive in Ukraine to fight with Foreign Legion". Newstalk. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  180. ^ "'Brave' Irish man, 23, killed in action in Ukraine". RTÉ.ie. 5 October 2022.
  181. ^ Shiel, Tom (27 April 2023). "Irish man killed fighting Russian forces in Ukraine". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  182. The Irish Independent
    . Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  183. ^
    Times of Israel. 26 February 2022. Archived
    from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  184. ^
    Times of Israel. 26 February 2022. Archived
    from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  185. ^ "'For me, this is personal.' Some in Israel join Ukraine's defense". Christian Science Monitor. 5 March 2022. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  186. ^ "'No other option': Israeli ex-commandos said to secretly train Ukrainian civilians". Times of Israel. 25 March 2022.
  187. ^ "Israeli Dmitry Fialka died in the battles for Ukraine". Observational.com. 5 September 2022.
  188. ^ "Israeli youth soccer coach killed fighting Russians in Ukraine war". ynetnews.com. 5 September 2022.
  189. ^ Marone, Francesco (25 February 2022). "I foreign fighters in Ucraina: il caso italiano" [Foreign fighters in Ukraine: the Italian case]. Istituto per gli studi di politica internazionale (in Italian). Institute for International Political Studies. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  190. ^ "Gli italiani che combattono in Ucraina" [The Italians who fight in Ukraine]. Il Post (in Italian). Il Post. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  191. ^ "Expelled from the air force after complaints of hazing, Giulia Schiff enlisted in Ukraine". L'Unione Sarda English. 23 March 2022.
  192. ^ "Italian female pilot joins Ukraine mission despite legal case". www.italianinsider.it.
  193. ^ "Italian dies in combat in Ukraine - English". 20 September 2022.
  194. ^ Kaite, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Takashi (1 March 2022). "ウクライナ「義勇兵」に日本人70人が志願 50人が元自衛官" [70 Japanese Volunteer in Ukraine, 50 Former Self-Defense Force Members]. Mainishi Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  195. ^ Saito, Mari; Lies, Elaine (2 March 2022). "Volunteers flock to fight for Ukraine in pacifist Japan". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  196. ^ "ウクライナ義勇軍に日本人は参加できる? 法的問題は?横粂弁護士が解説 – 東京スポーツ新聞社" [Can Japanese participate in the Ukrainian volunteer army? What are the legal issues? Commentary by Yokokume Lawyer – Tokyo Sports Newspaper]. 東スポWeb. March 2022.
  197. ^ ""日本人義勇兵"ウクライナ入りか「直ちに退避を」" [(lit., per machine translator): "Japanese volunteers" enter Ukraine or "immediate evacuation"]. テレ朝news (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  198. ^ "ウクライナに"日本人義勇兵"か 20代男性取材に「難民ら助けたい」" ["Japanese volunteers" in Ukraine or "I want to help refugees" in an interview with a man in his twenties |TBS NEWS]. 22 March 2022. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022.
  199. ^ 根本晃 (7 November 2022). "20代日本人がウクライナで志願兵に 報道見て「助けたいと思った」". Osaka: The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  200. ^ "ウクライナの日本人義勇兵「9人」に増加 ロシア国防省公表の最新版資料 | TBS News Dig". newsdig.tbs.co.jp. Archived from the original on 3 September 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  201. ^ "ウクライナで戦っていたとみられる日本人男性死亡 政府関係者" (in Japanese). Tokyo: Japan Broadcasting Corp. 11 November 2022. Archived from the original on 10 November 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  202. ^ Lin, Kun-wei (11 November 2022). "才悼曾聖光「來世當好友」傳戰死 日首例志願軍援烏捐軀" [D.I.A. shortly after grieving Zeng "Be my good friend in next life", claimed the first Japanese volunteer sacrifice of the military support in Ukraine]. Mirror News (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei. Archived from the original on 11 November 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  203. ^ "Latvia allows its citizens to fight in Ukraine". Reuters. 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  204. Lsm.lv. 28 February 2022. Archived
    from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  205. ^ Sytas, Andrius (8 March 2022). "Latvian member of parliament joins foreign fighters in Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  206. ^ "A handful of M'sians staying put". The Star. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  207. ^ "Hay soldados mexicanos en Ucrania: la foto que lo demuestra" [There are Mexican soldiers in Ukraine: the photo that proves it]. La Prensa (in Spanish). 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  208. ^ "Dozens of Moldovan citizens are fighting in Ukraine against the Russian Federation".
  209. ^ a b "Uruguayan soldier says he fights in Ukraine to "get value" out of his military experience".
  210. ^ "VIDEO/ Un grup de moldoveni care luptă în Ucraina, mesaj către participanții la protestele Partidului Șor: "Uitați-vă atent ce se petrece aici și dați-vă seama ce se va petrece în R. Moldova, dacă o să susțineți aceste proteste. Asta e mâna Moscovei"". 5 November 2022.
  211. ^ "40 Nederlanders onderweg naar Oekraïne om te vechten tegen de Russen: 'Niet iedereen overziet de gevolgen'" [40 Dutch on their way to Ukraine to fight against the Russians: 'Not everyone foresees the consequences']. EenVandaag (in Dutch). 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  212. ^ "Dutch Foreign Legion fighters wounded in Russian missile attack in western Ukraine". NL Times. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  213. ^ "'Nederlanders gewond geraakt bij raketaanvallen op militaire basis in Oekraïne'" [Dutchmen injured in rocket attacks on military base in Ukraine] (in Dutch). 13 March 2022.
  214. ^ "Oekraïens leger bevestigt: Nederlandse vrijwilliger overleden". 5 June 2022.
  215. ^ a b "Another Dutch fighter killed in combat in Ukraine". NL Times. 20 September 2022.
  216. ^ "Over 500 Kiwis volunteer to fight for Ukraine International Legion against Russia despite a 'do not travel' warning". Newshub. 8 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  217. ^ "'Got to stand up to a bully': Auckland man travelling to Ukraine to fight Russia". Archived from the original on 30 April 2022.
  218. ^ "New Zealand soldier who joined Ukraine foreign legion confirmed killed". TheGuardian.com. 25 August 2022.
  219. ^ "Corporal Dominic Abelen believed to have worked for special forces foreign military unit". Radio New Zealand. 12 September 2022.
  220. ^ "Kiwi soldier killed in Ukraine: New details emerge as foreign unit's 'luck ran out'". 17 May 2023.
  221. ^ "Nigerian volunteer: 'Fighting in Ukraine is better than living here'". BBC News. 16 March 2022.
  222. ^ a b "Ukraine war: Nigerian and Senegalese soldiers killed, says Russia". Focus on Africa. BBC World Service. 23 June 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2023.
  223. ^ Tidligere sametingsrepresentant i Ukraina: – Jeg føler at det er vår tid for å gi noe tilbake www.sagat.no, accessed 13 April 2022
  224. ^ "Peruano se une como voluntario para defender a Ucrania del ataque ruso: "Estoy dispuesto a dar mi vida"" [Peruvian joins as a volunteer to defend Ukraine from the Russian attack: "I am willing to give my life"]. Trome (in Spanish). 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  225. ^ Molga, Tomasz (2 March 2022). "Polak formuje oddział do walki w Ukrainie. "Przyłączymy się do obrony Kijowa"" [The Pole forms a unit to fight in Ukraine. "We will join the defense of Kiev"]. wiadomosci.wp.pl (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  226. ^ "Já há portugueses a combater contra os russos, diz Ucrânia" [There are already Portuguese fighting the Russians, says Ukraine]. O Minho (in Portuguese). 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  227. ^ "Un tânăr de 19 ani din Baia Mare vrea să lupte pentru Ucraina: "Am în minte imaginile cu mame și copii fugind. Nu-mi închipui cum ar fi să nu ai niciun ajutor"" [A 19-year-old man from Baia Mare wants to fight for Ukraine: "I have in mind the images of mothers and children running away. I can't imagine what it would be like to have no help."]. Libertatea (in Romanian). 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  228. ^ Cole, Brendan (30 March 2022). "Former Russian Soldiers Join Ukraine Against Putin's Invasion, Kyiv Says". Newsweek. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  229. ^ a b "Russia-Ukraine war: Kyiv invites Algerian fighters to Ukraine to 'protect world security'". Middle East Eye. 5 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  230. ^ "Portparol Međunarodne legije u Ukrajini: Ovde Hrvati i Srbi ratuju rame uz rame". N1 (in Serbian). 20 March 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  231. ^ "S'pore citizens' duty is to S'pore: Vivian Balakrishnan on whether S'poreans can fight in Ukraine for Ukrainians". Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  232. ^ a b "Embassy: Some 100 S. Koreans Have Volunteered to Fight in Ukraine". KBS World. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  233. ^ "Navy SEAL-turned-YouTuber claims he left for Ukraine to participate in war as volunteer". Yonhap News Agency. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  234. ^ "Rhee Keun-led team goes to Ukraine to fight against invader". The Korea Post. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  235. ^ "[단독]우크라行 해병대원, 국경 인근서 신병 확보" [[Exclusive] Ukrainian Marines secure new recruits near the border]. 22 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  236. ^ "[인터뷰]우크라행 탈영병 "DP에 자수? 가더라도 내 발로"" [(literally, per machine translator): [Interview] Deserter bound for Ukraine "Embroidery to DP? Even if I go, I will use my feet"]. 노컷뉴스 – via news.v.daum.net.
  237. ^ "(LEAD) S. Korean volunteers deployed to front-line units in Ukraine: official". Yonhap News Agency. 28 March 2022.
  238. ^ "Koreans in Ukraine end up on front lines". koreajoongangdaily.joins.com. 28 March 2022.
  239. ^ Ken Rhee gives an update of his whereabouts in Ukraine through Instagram www.allkpop.com, accessed 13 April 2022
  240. ^ Sophie-Ha (4 May 2022). "'Ken Rhee is really risking his life' a video rumored to be of Ken Rhee fighting in Ukraine goes viral". News. AllKPop. Archived from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  241. ^ Крикуненко, Ірина (14 May 2022). «Українці воюють, імпровізуючи». Ексспецпризначенець з Південної Кореї, який визволяє Україну, розповів, як тут ведуться бої ["Ukrainians are fighting, improvising." South Korean special envoy liberating Ukraine describes the fighting]. НВ (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  242. ^ Shin Min-Hee (20 May 2022). "Injured Ken Rhee expected back in Korea soon". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  243. ^ "Injured South Korean fighter back from Ukraine faces investigation".
  244. ^ "경찰, '이근 귀국' 6시간25분만에 출국금지 신청..."조사 예정"(종합)".
  245. ^ a b "S. Korea verifying Russia's data on deaths of 4 volunteer fighters in Ukraine". 18 June 2022.
  246. ^ "우크라전 韓의용군 더 있다…"드론 뜨는 순간 포격" 전쟁의 공포". 23 February 2023.
  247. ^ Samuelsson, Jan (25 March 2022). "678 frivilliga svenskar strider i Ukraina" [678 Swedish volunteers are fighting in Ukraine]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish) – via www.svd.se.
  248. ^ "'Worth Fighting For': Why A Swedish Politician Joined The Ukrainian Armed Forces". 26 April 2023 – via www.rferl.org.
  249. ^ a b "Swiss fighters join Ukrainian forces". 5 May 2022.
  250. ^ a b "台人想加入義勇軍? 外交部:建議避免前往烏克蘭" [Taiwanese people want to join International Legion of Ukraine? Ministry of Foreign Affairs: suggesting not to go there] (in Chinese). Liberty Times. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  251. ^ "Indigenous Taiwanese man volunteers for Ukrainian Foreign Legion". Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  252. ^ "未錄取國際抗俄志願軍 王芮緹親揭原因 曝下一步動向 - 國際" [Wang Ruiti personally revealed the reason for not being admitted to the International Anti-Russian Volunteer Army, revealing the next move]. 自由時報電子報. 29 March 2022.
  253. ^ "Taiwanese man denied entry into Ukrainian Foreign Legion - Focus Taiwan". focustaiwan.tw.
  254. ^ a b "Taiwanese man takes up arms to defend adopted homeland Ukraine - Focus Taiwan". focustaiwan.tw.
  255. ^ Chen, Kelvin (10 April 2022). "2nd Taiwanese enlists in Ukrainian foreign legion". Taiwan New.
  256. ^ Everington, Keoni (25 April 2022). "Taiwanese man now fighting for Ukraine's foreign legion". Taiwan News.
  257. ^ "赴烏克蘭參戰抗俄! 台灣志願軍分享烏東前線最新戰況 - 國際". 14 May 2022.
  258. .
  259. ^ Lau, Stuart (8 November 2022). "Death of Taiwanese soldier exposes Kyiv's China dilemma". Brussels: Politico Europe. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  260. ^ Hong, Fu-hwa; Liu, Ting-ting (5 November 2022). "首位台籍志願軍曾聖光戰死烏克蘭 友人:為救同袍!他擔心未來戰爭在台灣" [The first Taiwanese volunteer Zeng fought to death in Ukraine; his friend: It's for saving his colleagues! He worried about the future war in Taiwan.] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei. TVBS. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  261. ^ a b "台灣25歲志願兵戰死烏克蘭 家屬證實接獲噩耗" [The family of a 25-year-old Taiwanese volunteer killed in Ukraine confirmed that they had received bad news] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei. Liberty Times. 4 November 2022. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  262. ^ a b "Hualien man becomes 1st Taiwanese combatant to die in Ukraine war". Taipei. Central News Agency (Taiwan). 4 November 2022. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  263. ^ "No Thai military volunteers in Ukraine, says charge d'affaires". Bangkok Post.
  264. ^ Arpacık, Cihat (5 March 2022). "Savaşın içindeki ailesini kurtarmak için Ukrayna ordusuna gönüllü yazılan Türk: Silahımı alarak ordudan çıkarttılar, 'Türkiye hükümeti, Türk milis almayın talebi iletti' dediler". Independent Türkçe (in Turkish). Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  265. POLITICO. 27 February 2022. Archived
    from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  266. ^ Walker, Peter (28 February 2022). "No 10 distances itself from Truss comments on UK volunteers for Ukraine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  267. ^ Sparrow, Andrew (28 February 2022). "Liz Truss criticised for backing Britons who wish to fight in Ukraine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  268. ^ "British volunteers who travel to fight in Ukraine could violate terror laws". The Independent. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 12 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  269. ^ Olearchyk, Roman; Wallis, William; Ellingham, Miles (4 March 2022). "Zelensky's call for volunteers to defend Ukraine heeded by thousands from abroad". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  270. from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  271. ^ "Don't fight in Ukraine – military boss tells Britons". BBC News. 6 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  272. ^ "Serving Coldstream Guard leaves Windsor barracks to fight Russian forces". ITV News. 9 March 2022.
  273. ^ "British soldier arrested after unauthorized trip to join Ukraine's foreign legion". MercoPress.
  274. ^ "Ukraine war: Britons held by rebels in Ukraine plead not guilty". BBC News. 15 August 2022.
  275. ^ "Britons held by Russian forces in Ukraine released". BBC News. 21 September 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  276. ^ "Ukraine conflict: British man Scott Sibley killed by mortar fire - inquest". BBC News. 14 June 2022.
  277. ^ "Ukraine war: Former British soldier Jordan Gatley killed in fighting". BBC News. 12 June 2022.
  278. ^ "Ukraine war: Briton killed while volunteering in Ukraine, says sister". BBC News. September 2022.
  279. ^ "'Hero' former British Army reservist killed in Ukraine while trying to evacuate injured comrades". MSN.
  280. ^ "Ukraine war: Briton Simon Lingard killed in conflict". BBC News. 9 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  281. ^ "Two British aid workers were killed during Ukraine evacuation". Reuters. 24 January 2023. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  282. ^ "British man who died in Ukraine named as 'hero' paramedic Jonathan Shenkin". Sky News. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  283. ^ "Paul Urey: Captured Briton possibly suffered 'unspeakable' torture, says Ukraine". BBC News. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  284. ^ Patteson, Callie (2 March 2022). "Americans discouraged from going to Ukraine to fight Russia". Nypost.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  285. ^ Shull, Abbie (3 March 2022). "Ukraine says 3,000 Americans have volunteered to fight Russian invaders". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  286. ^ Fox, Ben (10 March 2022). "Ukrainian embassy draws US citizens seeking to fight in war". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  287. ^ "Un venezolano se unió a la resistencia ucraniana para defender Kiev" [A Venezuelan joined the Ukrainian resistance to defend kyiv]. El Diario (in Spanish). 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  288. ^ "José David Chaparro, es el 'comandante' venezolano de una pequeña división de voluntarios en Ucrania (Fotos y Video)". AlbertoNews (in Spanish). 17 April 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  289. ^ Haram, Ola; Tobiassen, Markus; Engen, Runa Victoria; Matre Aasarød, Askild (7 April 2022). "Sandra Andersen Eira kriger i Ukraina" [Sandra Andersen Eira fighting in Ukraine]. Verdens Gang (in Norwegian Bokmål). Archived from the original on 9 April 2022.
  290. ^ MacNamee, Garreth (28 April 2023). "'A true superhero' - Irishman killed in Ukraine also fought against Isis". Extra.ie. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  291. ^ "The Venezuelan 'comandante' in Ukraine - la Prensa Latina Media". 16 April 2022.
  292. La Republica (in Spanish). 19 March 2022. Archived
    from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  293. ^ a b Mariya, Petkova (14 March 2022). "Ukraine's foreign legion joins the battle against Russia". al-jazeera. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  294. ^ Rhee Ken remains in Ukraine after team passed into Poland, Korea JoongAng Daily (15 March 2022)
  295. ^ Ken Rhee gives an update of his whereabouts in Ukraine through Instagram, Allkpop (31 March 2022)
  296. ^ O'Connell, Oliver (21 October 2022). "RFK grandson Conor Kennedy reveals he secretly fought on frontline in Ukraine". The Independent. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  297. ^ Shamsian, Jacob (7 March 2022). "A Georgian commander fighting Russian forces in Ukraine says more international support will help defeat Putin". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022.
  298. ^ Chaitin, Daniel. "MSNBC analyst Malcolm Nance reveals he joined fight in Ukraine". Colorado Gazette. Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  299. ^ "Former Swedish Lawmaker Signs Contract to Serve with Ukrainian Armed Forces". Kyiv Post. 24 April 2023. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  300. ^ "专访欲参加乌克兰外籍军团的华裔青年:这场战争是不对的!" [Interview with a Chinese youth who want to join the Ukrainian International Legion: This war is wrong!]. Radio Free Asia (in Chinese). 16 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  301. ^ Hema, Mikhail (7 November 2022). "В войне за Украину погиб шестой гражданин США и доброволец из Тайваня" [The sixth US citizen and a volunteer from Taiwan died in the war for Ukraine]. 24 Kanal (in Russian). Kyiv. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  302. ^ Lau, Stuart (8 November 2022). "Death of Taiwanese soldier exposes Kyiv's China dilemma". Brussels: Politico Europe. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  303. ^ Свабода, Радыё (8 March 2022). ""Верым, што пераможам Расею, а пасьля вызвалім Беларусь". У беларускую роту тэрабароны Ўкраіны запісаліся сямёра маладафронтаўцаў" ["We believe that we will defeat Russia and then liberate Belarus." Seven Young Front members enlisted in the Belarusian company of Ukrainian defense]. Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  304. ^ "Former Gazprombank executive Igor Volobuev joins the Freedom to Russia Legion within the Ukrainian Armed Forces". Novaya Gazeta. 11 June 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  305. ^ "'I could not be part of this crime': the Russians fighting for Ukraine". The Guardian. 14 June 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  306. ^ Harding, Luke; Beaumont, Peter; Tondo, Lorenzo (13 March 2022). "Russia targets Ukrainian military base near Polish border in escalation: US national security adviser says any fire on neighbour of Ukraine would trigger full-force Nato response". Ukraine. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  307. ^ Ramzy, Austin (13 March 2022). "The base attacked in western Ukraine has been a hub for foreign militaries". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  308. ^ "Enthüllt – auch Österreicher kämpfen im Ukraine-Krieg" [Exposed – Austrians fight in the Ukraine War too]. World: Ukraine. Heute (in German). 16 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  309. ^ Perkonig, Angela (16 March 2022). "Deutscher Söldner in der Ukraine: 'Da kommt keiner lebend raus'" [German soldiers in Ukraine: "Nobody gets out alive"]. Chronik. Puls 24 (in German). Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  310. ^
  311. ^ [1]
  312. ^
  313. ^
  314. ^
  315. ^
  316. ^
  317. ^
  318. ^ ""Звільнення" Бєлгородщини: російські добровольці розповіли про втрати під час операції". 24 May 2023.
  319. ^
  320. ^
  321. ^
  322. ^
  323. ^
  324. ^
  325. ^
  326. ^
  327. ^
  328. ^
  329. ^
  330. ^
  331. ^ "First Dutch volunteer killed on battlefield in Ukraine". DutchNews.nl. 9 May 2022.
  332. ^
  333. ^ "Murió en combate un ucraniano que vivía en El Calafate y había viajado a su país para sumarse a la guerra". Clarín (in Spanish). 5 November 2022.
  334. ^ "Tributes paid to Natalia Frauscher from Innsbruck, Austria killed and buried in Kyiv, Ukraine". EuroWeekly. 3 July 2022.
  335. ^ "Ethnic Bulgarian Ivan Minkov died in battle in Ukraine". Prepyou. 12 April 2023.
  336. ^ "Young Croatian Humanitarian Andro Fabijanic Dies in Ukraine". Total Croatia News. 17 September 2022.
  337. ^ "Danish citizen dies in Ukraine conflict". The Local Denmark. 1 May 2022.
  338. ^ "Foreign fighter italiano morto in Ucraina. Il padre: "Mio figlio eroe di guerra"". ilmessaggero.it (in Italian). 20 September 2022.
  339. ^ "Primul japonez ucis in lupta pe frontul din Ucraina. Ultimul lui mesaj, adresat camaradului taiwanez ucis: "Voi lupta impreuna cu sufletul lui pana la sfarsitul razboiului"". aktual24.ro. 10 November 2022.
  340. ^ "Казах из Алматы воевал в Буче, Ирпене и Херсоне. 4.02.2023 / БАСЕ" – via www.youtube.com.
  341. ^ "Luso-britânico morre em combate na Ucrânia". sabado.pt (in Portuguese). 27 March 2023.
  342. ^ "Muere un español que combatía en la guerra de Ucrania y que se alistó para luchar contra Rusia". El Español (in Spanish). 21 June 2022.
  343. ^ "https://www.rferl.org/a/ukraine-wagner-bodies-united-states-turkey-fighters/32427936.html"
  344. ^ "Homepage Non Profit - Education". Memorial ILDU.

External links