|Governorate of Florida|
La Florida (Spanish)
|Territory of New Spain|
Cross of Burgundy
transl. Further Beyond
• Spanish exploration and settlement
Returned to Spain
|Today part of||United States|
Spanish Florida (
Florida was never more than a backwater region for Spain and served primarily as a strategic buffer between New Spain (whose undefined northeastern border was somewhere near the Mississippi River), Spain's Caribbean colonies, and the expanding English colonies to the north. In contrast with Mexico and Peru, there was no gold or silver to be found. Due to disease and, later, raids by Carolina colonists and their Native American allies, the native population was not large enough for an encomienda system of forced agricultural labor, so Spain did not establish large plantations in Florida. Large free-range cattle ranches in north-central Florida were the most successful agricultural enterprise and were able to supply both local and Cuban markets. The coastal towns of Pensacola and St. Augustine also provided ports where Spanish ships needing water or supplies could call.
Beginning in the 1630s, a series of missions stretching from St. Augustine to the Florida panhandle supplied St. Augustine with maize and other food crops, and the Apalachees who lived at the missions were required to send workers to St. Augustine every year to perform labor in the town. The missions were destroyed by Carolina and Creek raiders in a series of raids from 1702 to 1704, further reducing and dispersing the native population of Florida and reducing Spanish control over the area.
Britain took possession of Florida as part of the agreements ending the
Establishment of Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida was established in 1513, when
Spanish control of the Florida peninsula was much facilitated by the collapse of native cultures during the 17th century. Several Native American groups (including the Timucua, Calusa, Tequesta, Apalachee, Tocobaga, and the Ais people) had been long-established residents of Florida, and most resisted Spanish incursions onto their land. However, conflict with Spanish expeditions, raids by the Carolina colonists and their native allies, and (especially) diseases brought from Europe resulted in a drastic decline in the population of all the indigenous peoples of Florida, and large swaths of the peninsula were mostly uninhabited by the early 1700s. During the mid-1700s, small bands of Creek and other Native American refugees began moving south into Spanish Florida after having been forced off their lands by South Carolinan settlements and raids. They were later joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies. These newcomers – plus perhaps a few surviving descendants of indigenous Florida peoples – eventually coalesced into a new Seminole culture.
Contraction of Spanish Florida
The extent of Spanish Florida began to shrink in the 1600s, and the mission system was gradually abandoned due to native depopulation. Between disease, poor management, and ill-timed hurricanes, several Spanish attempts to establish new settlements in La Florida ended in failure. With no gold or silver in the region, Spain regarded Florida (and particularly the heavily fortified town of St. Augustine) primarily as a buffer between its more prosperous colonies to the south and west and several newly established rival European colonies to the north. The establishment of the Province of Carolina by the English in 1639, New Orleans by the French in 1718, and of the Province of Georgia by Great Britain in 1732 limited the boundaries of Florida over Spanish objections. The War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–1748) included a British attack on St. Augustine and a Spanish invasion of Georgia, both of which were repulsed. At the conclusion of the war, the northern boundary of Spanish Florida was set near the current northern border of modern-day Florida.
Other European powers
Great Britain temporarily gained control of Florida beginning in 1763 as a result of the
France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803. The U.S. claimed that the transaction included West Florida, while Spain insisted that the area was not part of Louisiana and was still Spanish territory. In 1810, the United States intervened in a local uprising in West Florida, and by 1812, the Mobile District was absorbed into the U.S. territory of Mississippi, reducing the borders of Spanish Florida to that of modern Florida.
In the early 1800s, tensions rose along the unguarded border between Spanish Florida and the state of Georgia as settlers skirmished with Seminoles over land and American slave-hunters raided
Discovery and early exploration
Juan Ponce de León Expedition
In 1512 Juan Ponce de León, governor of Puerto Rico, received royal permission to search for land north of Cuba. On March 3, 1513, his expedition departed from Punta Aguada, Puerto Rico, sailing north in three ships. In late March, he spotted a small island (almost certainly one of the Bahamas) but did not land. On April 2, Ponce de León spotted the east coast of the Florida peninsula and went ashore the next day at an exact location that has been lost to time. Assuming that he had found a large island, he claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida, because it was the season of Pascua Florida ("Flowery Easter") and because much of the vegetation was in bloom. After briefly exploring the area around their landing site, the expedition returned to their ships and sailed south to map the coast, encountering the Gulf Stream along the way. The expedition followed Florida's coastline all the way around the Florida Keys and north to map a portion of the Southwest Florida
Ponce de León did not have substantial documented interactions with Native Americans during his voyage. However, the peoples he met (likely the Timucua, Tequesta, and Calusa) were mostly hostile at first contact and knew a few Castilian words, lending credence to the idea that they had already been visited by Spanish raiders.: 106–110
Popular legend has it that Ponce de León was searching for the Fountain of Youth when he discovered Florida. However, the first mention of Ponce de León allegedly searching for water to cure his aging (he was only 40) came after his death, more than twenty years after his voyage of discovery, and the first that placed the Fountain of Youth in Florida was thirty years after that. It is much more likely that Ponce de León, like other Spanish conquistadors in the Americas, was looking for gold, land to colonize and rule for Spain, and Indians to convert to Christianity or enslave.
Other early expeditions
Other Spanish voyages to Florida quickly followed Ponce de León's return. Sometime in the period from 1514 to 1516, Pedro de Salazar led an officially sanctioned raid which enslaved as many as 500 Indians along the Atlantic coast of the present-day southeastern United States. Diego Miruelo mapped what was probably Tampa Bay in 1516, Francisco Hernández de Cordova mapped most of Florida's Gulf coast to the Mississippi River in 1517, and Alonso Álvarez de Pineda sailed and mapped the central and western Gulf coast to the Yucatán Peninsula in 1519.
First colonization attempts
In 1521, Ponce de León sailed from Cuba with 200 men in two ships to establish a colony on the southwest coast of the Florida peninsula, probably near Charlotte Harbor. However, attacks by the native Calusa drove the colonists away in July 1521. During the skirmish, Ponce de León was wounded in his thigh and later died of his injuries upon the expedition's return to Havana.
In 1521 Pedro de Quejo and Francisco Gordillo enslaved 60 Indians at
Intending to find Tampa Bay, Narváez marched close to the coast, through what turned out to be a largely uninhabited territory. The expedition was forced to subsist on the rations they had brought with them until they reached the Withlacoochee River, where they finally encountered Indians. Seizing hostages, the expedition reached the Indians' village, where they found corn. Further north they were met by a chief who led them to his village on the far side of the Suwannee River. The chief, Dulchanchellin, tried to enlist the Spanish as allies against his enemies, the Apalachee.
Seizing Indians as guides, the Spaniards traveled northwest towards the Apalachee territory. Milanich suggests that the guides led the Spanish on a circuitous route through the roughest country they could find. In any case, the expedition did not find the larger Apalachee towns. By the time the expedition reached Aute, a town near the Gulf Coast, it had been under attack by Indian archers for many days. Plagued by illness, short rations, and hostile Indians, Narváez decided to sail to Mexico rather than attempt an overland march. Two hundred and forty-two men set sail on five crude rafts. All the rafts were wrecked on the Texas coast. After eight years, four survivors, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, reached New Spain (Mexico).
De Soto expedition
Hernando de Soto had been one of Francisco Pizarro's chief lieutenants in the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, and had returned to Spain a very wealthy man. He was appointed Adelantado of Florida and governor of Cuba and assembled a large expedition to 'conquer' Florida. On May 30, 1539, de Soto and his companions landed in Tampa Bay, where they found Juan Ortiz, who had been captured by the local Indians a decade earlier when he was sent ashore from a ship searching for Narváez. Ortiz passed on the Indian reports of riches, including gold, to be found in Apalachee, and de Soto set off with 550 soldiers, 200 horses, and a few priests and friars. De Soto's expedition lived off the land as it marched. De Soto followed a route further inland than that of Narváez's expedition, but the Indians remembered the earlier disruptions caused by the Spanish and were wary when not outright hostile. De Soto seized Indians to serve as guides and porters.
The expedition reached Apalachee in October and settled into the chief Apalachee town of Anhaica for the winter, where they found large quantities of stored food, but little gold or other riches. In the spring de Soto set out to the northeast, crossing what is now Georgia and South Carolina into North Carolina, then turned westward, crossed the Great Smoky Mountains into Tennessee, then marched south into Georgia. Turning westward again, the expedition crossed Alabama. They lost all of their baggage in a fight with Indians near Choctaw Bluff on the Alabama River, and spent the winter in Mississippi. In May 1541 the expedition crossed the Mississippi River and wandered through present-day Arkansas, Missouri and possibly Kansas before spending the winter in Oklahoma. In 1542 the expedition headed back to the Mississippi River, where de Soto died. Three hundred and ten survivors returned from the expedition in 1543.
Ochuse and Santa Elena
Although the Spanish had lost hope of finding gold and other riches in Florida, it was seen as vital to the defense of their colonies and territories in Mexico and the Caribbean. In 1559
Settlement and fortification
The establishment of permanent settlements and fortifications in Florida by
At the same time, in response to French activities, King Philip II of Spain appointed Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Adelantado of Florida, with a commission to drive non-Spanish adventurers from all of the land from Newfoundland to St. Joseph Bay (on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico). Menéndez de Avilés reached Florida at the same time as Ribault in 1565, and established a base at San Agustín (St. Augustine in English), the oldest continuously inhabited European-established settlement in what is now the continental United States. Menéndez de Avilés quickly set out to attack Fort Caroline, traveling overland from St. Augustine. At the same time, Ribault sailed from Fort Caroline, intending to attack St. Augustine from the sea. The French fleet, however, was pushed out to sea and decimated by a squall. Meanwhile, the Spanish overwhelmed the lightly defended Fort Caroline, sparing only the women and children.: 200–202  Some 25 men were able to escape. When the Spanish returned south and found the French shipwreck survivors, Menéndez de Avilés ordered all of the Huguenots executed.: 94 The location became known as Matanzas.: 202
The 1565 marriage in St. Augustine between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville, and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador, was the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
Following the expulsion of the French, the Spanish renamed Fort Caroline
To fortify St. Augustine, Spaniards (along with forced labor from the Timucuan, Guale, and Apalache peoples) built the Castillo de San Marcos beginning in 1672. The first stage of construction was completed in 1695. They also built Fort Matanzas just to the south to look for enemies arriving by sea. In the eighteenth century, a free black population began to grow in St. Augustine, as Spanish Florida granted freedom to enslaved people fleeing the Thirteen Colonies. Fort Mose became another fort, populated by free black militiamen and their families, serving as a buffer between the Spanish and British.
Missions and conflicts
In 1566, the Spanish established the colony of
In 1586, English privateer Francis Drake plundered and burned St. Augustine, including a fortification that was under construction, while returning from raiding Santo Domingo and Cartagena in the Caribbean.: 429  His raids exposed Spain's inability to properly defend her settlements.
The extension of the mission system also provided a military strategic advantage from British troops arriving from the North.: 311 During the hundred-plus year span of missionary expansion, disease from the Europeans had a significant impact on the natives, along with the rising power of the French and British. During the Queen Anne's War, the British destroyed most of the missions. By 1706, the missionaries abandoned their mission outposts and returned to St. Augustine.
Period of friendship
Spanish Governor Pedro de Ibarra worked at establishing peace with the native cultures to the South of St. Augustine. An account is recorded of his meeting with great Indian caciques (chiefs). Ybarra (Ibarra) in 1605 sent Álvaro Mexía, a cartographer, on a mission further South to meet and develop diplomatic ties with the Ais Indian nation, and to make a map of the region. His mission was successful.
In February 1647, the Apalachee revolted.: 27 The revolt changed the relationship between Spanish authorities and the Apalachee. Following the revolt, Apalachee men were forced to work on public projects in St. Augustine or on Spanish-owned ranches. In 1656, the Timucua rebelled, disrupting the Spanish missions in Florida. This also affected the ranches and food supplies for St. Augustine.
The economy of Spanish Florida diversified during the 17th century, with cattle ranching playing a major role. Throughout the 17th century, colonists from the Carolina and Virginia colonies gradually pushed the frontier of Spanish Florida south. In the early 18th century, French settlements along the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast encroached on the western borders of the Spanish claim.
Starting in 1680, Carolina colonists and their Native American allies repeatedly attacked Spanish mission villages and St. Augustine, burning missions and killing or kidnapping the Indian population. In 1702,
At the end of the 17th century and early in the 18th century the Spanish attempted to block French expansion from
Some Spanish men married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek, or
During the 18th century, the Native American peoples who would become the Seminoles began their migration to Florida, which had been largely depopulated by Carolinian and Yamasee slave raids. Carolina's power was damaged and the colony nearly destroyed during the Yamasee War of 1715–1717, after which the Native American slave trade was radically reformed.
Spanish Florida was a destination for escaped slaves from the Thirteen Colonies. The Spanish authorities offered them freedom if they converted to Catholicism and served in the colonial militia. (Some, such as those from Angola, were already Catholic.) This policy was formalized in 1693.
Possession by Britain
In 1763, Spain traded Florida to Great Britain in exchange for control of Havana, Cuba, and Manila in the Philippines, which had been captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. As Britain had defeated France in the war, it took over all of French Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, except for New Orleans. Finding this new territory too vast to govern as a single unit, Britain divided the southernmost areas into two territories separated by the Apalachicola River: East Florida (the peninsula) and West Florida (the panhandle).
Notably, most of the Spanish population departed following the signing of the treaty, with the entirety of St Augustine emigrating to Cuba.
The British soon began an aggressive recruiting policy to attract colonists to the area, offering free land and backing for export-oriented businesses. In 1764, the British moved the northern boundary of West Florida to a line extending from the mouth of the Yazoo River east to the Chattahoochee River (32° 22′ north latitude), consisting of approximately the lower third of the present states of Mississippi and Alabama, including the valuable Natchez District.
During this time,
Britain retained control over East Florida during the American Revolutionary War, but the Spanish, by that time allied with the French who were at war with Britain, recaptured most of West Florida. At the end of the war the Peace of Paris (1783) treaties (between the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Spain) ceded all of East and West Florida to Spanish control, though without specifying the boundaries.
Second Spanish period
Spain gained possession of West Florida and regained East Florida from Britain in the Peace of Paris of 1783, and continued the British practice of governing the Floridas as separate territories: West Florida and East Florida. When Spain acquired West Florida in 1783, the eastern British boundary was the Apalachicola River, but Spain in 1785 moved it eastward to the Suwannee River. The purpose was to transfer San Marcos and the district of Apalachee from East Florida to West Florida.
After American independence, the lack of specified boundaries led to a border dispute with the newly formed United States, known as the West Florida Controversy. The two 1783 treaties that ended the American Revolutionary War had differences in boundaries. The Treaty of Paris between Britain and the United States specified the boundary between West Florida and the newly independent U.S. at 31°. However, in the companion Peace of Paris between Britain and Spain, West Florida was ceded to Spain without its boundaries being specified. The Spanish government assumed that the boundary was the same as in the 1763 agreement by which they had first given their territory in Florida to Britain, claiming that the northern boundary of West Florida was at the 32° 22′ boundary established by Britain in 1764 after the Seven Years' War. The British line at 32° 22′ was close to Spain's old claim of 32° 30′, which can be justified by referring to the principle of actual possession adopted by Spain and England in the 1670 Treaty of Madrid. The now independent United States insisted that the boundary was at 31°, as specified in its Treaty of Paris with Britain.
After American independence, Spain claimed far more land than the old British West Florida, including the east side of the Mississippi River north to the Ohio and Tennessee rivers. This expanded claim was based on Spain's successful military operations against the British in the region during the war. Spain occupied or built several forts north of the old British West Florida border, including Fort Confederación, Fort Nogales (at present-day Vicksburg), and Fort San Fernando (at present-day Memphis). Spain tried to settle the dispute quickly, but the U.S. delayed, knowing that time was on its side. By Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 with the United States, Spain recognized the 31st parallel as the border, ending the first West Florida Controversy. Andrew Ellicott surveyed this parallel in 1797, as the border between the United States and Spanish territories. In 1798, Ellicott reported to the government that four American generals were receiving pensions from Spain, including General James Wilkinson.
Seminoles, slave raids, and uprisings
Spain, beset with independence movements in its other colonies, could not settle or adequately govern Florida by the turn of the 19th century, with real control limited to the immediate vicinity of St. Augustine, Pensacola, and a few small towns and forts scattered across the north of the territory. Tension and hostility between Seminoles and American settlers living in neighboring Georgia and over the Florida border grew steadily.
Though Spain officially ended its policy of welcoming people fleeing from slavery in other colonies and countries in 1790, a steady stream of such people continued to cross the unguarded border from the United States and either settled near Seminole villages or established their own small settlements.: 9 American slaveholders sought to reclaim who they considered their property and organized increasingly frequent raiding parties that entered Spanish territory to attack Seminole villages and capture anyone who might be a refugee from slavery. British agents working in Florida provided arms and other assistance to the Seminoles, resulting in counter-raids across the border that sometimes required intervention by the US military.
Several local insurrections and
Transfer to American control
- Martín de Argüelles (1566 – 1630) First white child (criollo) known to have been born in what is now the United States. His birthplace was St. Augustine, Florida.
- Luis Cáncer, Dominican priest
- Juan de Ayala y Escobar, governor of Spanish Florida (1716 – 1718) and a resident of that province.
- Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, Spanish shipwreck survivor who lived among the Native Americans of Florida for 17 years.
- Floridano who served as the first delegate from the Florida Territory. He was also the first Hispanic American to serve in the United States Congress and a member of the Whig Party(1822 – 1823)
- Pedro Benedit Horruytiner, interim co-governor of Spanish Florida (1646 – 1648) and governor of Spanish Florida (1651 – 1654). A resident of that province, his house and library are still preserved in Saint Augustine.
- Francisco Menéndez Márquez, interim co-governor of Spanish Florida (1646 – 1648), and the founder of the largest cattle ranching enterprise in Florida.
- Tomás Menéndez Márquez (1643 – 1706), official in the government of Spanish Florida, and owner, with his brothers, of the largest ranch in Spanish Florida.
- Nicolás Ponce de León II, acting governor of Spanish Florida (1663 – 1664, and 1673 – 1675) who was a native of Saint Augustine.
- Eligio de la Puente (1724 – 1781), Floridano who held various public offices in St. Augustine, Florida and in Havana, Cuba during the 18th century.
- Agustín V. Zamorano (1798 – 1842), Floridano who served as governor of Alta California (1832 - 1833).
- Apalachee massacre
- European colonization of the Americas
- Florida Territory
- History of Florida
- List of colonial governors of Florida
- Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas
- Spanish Louisiana
- Spanish Texas
- Spanish West Florida
- Joseph H. Fitzgerald (1984). Changing perceptions: mapping the shape of Florida, 1502-1982. The Historical Association of Southern Florida. p. 55.
- Wroth, Lawrence C. (1944). The early cartography of the Pacific. The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America. Portland, Maine: The Southworth-Anthoensen Press.
- Cummings, William P (1958). The Southeast in early maps. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Milanich, Jerald T.; Milbrath, Susan (1989). "Another World". In Jerald T. Milanich; Susan Milbrath (eds.). First Encounters: Spanish Explorations in the Caribbean and the United States, 1492–1570. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. pp. 1–26.
- Fuson, Robert H. (1988). "The John Cabot Mystique". In Stanley H. Palmer; Dennis Reinhartz (eds.). Essays on the History of North American Discovery and Exploration. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
- León Portilla, Miguel (1989). Cartografía y crónicas de la Antigua California. Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
- Varela Marcos, Jesús (2007). "Martín Waldseemüller y su planisferio del año 1507: origen e influencias" (PDF). Revista de estudios colombinos (3): 7–18.
- Proclamation presented by Dennis O. Freytes, MPA, MHR, BBA, Chair/Facilitator, 500TH Florida Discovery Council Round Table, American Veteran, Community Servant, VP NAUS SE Region; Chair Hispanic Achievers Grant Council
- "Court tries, fails to determine Ponce de Leon's landing site". palmbeachpost.com. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- "The Myth of Ponce de León and the Fountain of Youth". History.com. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Hoffman, Paul E. (1980). "A New Voyage of North American Discovery: Pedro de Salazar's Visit to the "Island of Giants"". The Florida Historical Quarterly. 58 (4): 423.
- "Juan Ponce de Leon Biography". Biography.com website. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- "Juan Ponce de Leon – biography – Spanish explorer". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia: Antonio Montesino". newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Bushnell:2–3. In 1573 Menéndez de Avilés' territory was extended to the Pánuco River, in New Spain.
- National Historic Landmarks Program – St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District Archived 2009-05-02 at the Wayback Machine
- J. Michael Francis, PhD, Luisa de Abrego: Marriage, Bigamy, and the Spanish Inquisition, University of South Florida
- Brevard, Caroline Mays (1904). A History of Florida. Harvard University Press. p. 97. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Augustine, Mailing Address: 1 South Castillo Drive Saint; Us, FL 32084 Phone:829-6506 Contact. "Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
- "Fort Mose Historic State Park". Florida State Parks. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
- Worth, John E. "Missions of Spanish Florida 1565–1763". www.uwf.edu. University of West Florida. Archived from the original on 28 September 2016.
- M. McAlister, Lyle Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492–1700. University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
- A. Burkholder, Mark; L. Johnson, Lyman Colonial Latin America. Oxford University Press, 1990. p. 145.
-  Middleton, Richard; Lombard, Anne Colonial America: A History to 1763. Wiley-Blackwell 4th Edition, 2007. Chap 15, sec 1.
-  M. A. Young, Gloria The Expedition of Hernando De Soto West of the Mississippi, 1541–1543. University of Arkansas Press, 1999. p. 24.
- McEwan, Bonnie. "San Luis de Talimali (or Mission San Luis)". Florida Humanities Council. Archived from the original on November 16, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- Gene Allen Smith, Texas Christian University, Sanctuary in the Spanish Empire: An African American officer earns freedom in Florida, National Park Service
- Smith, Bruce (March 18, 2012). "For a century, Underground Railroad ran south". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- "The British Period (1763-1784) - Fort Matanzas National Monument". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- "The Evolution of a State, Map of Florida Counties – 1820". 10th Circuit Court of Florida. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
Under Spanish rule, Florida was divided by the natural separation of the Suwanee River into West Florida and East Florida.
- Klein, Hank. "History Mystery: Was Destin Once in Walton County?". The Destin Log. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
On July 21, 1821 all of what had been West Florida was named Escambia County, after the Escambia River. It stretched from the Perdido River to the Suwanee River with its county seat at Pensacola.
- Article 2, Treaty of Paris (1783).
- de Arredondo, Antonio (1925) [written in 1742]. "Chapter IV". In Bolton, Herbert E. (ed.). Arredondo's Historical Proof of Spain's Title to Georgia: A Contribution to the History of One of the Spanish Borderlands. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 149–154. Retrieved 2017-03-22.
- Fort Tombécbe, Alabama Forts
- "Fort San Fernando De Las Barrancas" Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
- Tebeau, p. 103
- Morris, Michael (2003). "Dreams of Glory, Schemes of Empire: The Plan to Liberate Spanish Florida". Georgia Historical Quarterly. 87 (1): 1. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- Tebeau, p. 104-105
- Tebeau, p. 112
- Alexander Deconde, A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) p. 127
- Tebeau, p. 113
- Tebeau, p. 114
|Library resources about |
- Brevard, Caroline Mays. A History of Florida. Harvard University Press.
- Burkholder, Mark A.; Johnson, Lyman L. Colonial Latin America. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-504542-4
- Bushnell, Amy Turner. (1981). "Chapter 1: The Florida Provinces and Their Treasury." The King's Coffer: Proprietors of the Spanish Florida Treasury 1565–1702. University of Florida Press. Reprinted in David Hurst Thomas. (1991). Spanish Borderlands Sourcebooks 23: The missions of Spanish Florida. Garland Publishing.
- Clark, Larry Richard. (2017) Spain's Failure to Colonize Southeast North America 1513–1587. TimeSpan Press. ISBN 978-1542923118
- Forbes, John (1979). Coker, William S. (ed.). John Forbes' Description of tbe Spanish Floridas. 1804. Translated by Vicki D. Butt, Joyce Lee Durbin, Maria del Carmen McDonald, Mary Ellen West, and William S. Coker. Pensacola, Florida: Perdido Bay Press. OCLC 4858053.
- McAlister, Lyle M. Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492–1700. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1216-1
- Marley, David. Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the Western Hemisphere (2 Volumes). ABC-CLIO.
- Milanich, Jerald T. (1995) Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1360-7
- Patrick, Rembert W. (1954). Florida fiasco : rampant rebels on the Georgia-Florida border, 1810–1815. Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820335490. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- Tebeau, Charlton. (1980) A History of Florida. Rev. Ed. University of Miami Press. ISBN 0-87024-303-9
- Young, Gloria A. The Expedition of Hernando De Soto West of the Mississippi, 1541–1543. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 978-1-55728-580-5